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RFC2501 - Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations
This memo first describes the characteristics of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), and their idiosyncrasies with respect to traditional, hardwired packet networks. It then discusses the effect these differences have on the design and evaluation of network control protocols with an emphasis on routing performance evaluation considerations. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC3561 - Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing
The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in an ad hoc network. It offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines unicast routes to destinations within the ad hoc network. It uses destination sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom at all times (even in the face of anomalous delivery of routing control messages), avoiding problems (such as "counting to infinity") associated with classical distance vector protocols. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC3626 - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR)
This document describes the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol is an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the requirements of a mobile wireless LAN. The key concept used in the protocol is that of multipoint relays (MPRs). MPRs are selected nodes which forward broadcast messages during the flooding process. This technique substantially reduces the message overhead as compared to a classical flooding mechanism, where every node retransmits each message when it receives the first copy of the message. In OLSR, link state information is generated only by nodes elected as MPRs. Thus, a second optimization is achieved by minimizing the number of control messages flooded in the network. As a third optimization, an MPR node may chose to report only links between itself and its MPR selectors. Hence, as contrary to the classic link state algorithm, partial link state information is distributed in the network. This information is then used for route calculation. OLSR provides optimal routes (in terms of number of hops). The protocol is particularly suitable for large and dense networks as the technique of MPRs works well in this context.
RFC3684 - Topology Dissemination Based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF)
Topology Dissemination Based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF) is a proactive, link-state routing protocol designed for mobile ad-hoc networks, which provides hop-by-hop routing along shortest paths to each destination. Each node running TBRPF computes a source tree (providing paths to all reachable nodes) based on partial topology information stored in its topology table, using a modification of Dijkstra's algorithm. To minimize overhead, each node reports only *part* of its source tree to neighbors. TBRPF uses a combination of periodic and differential updates to keep all neighbors informed of the reported part of its source tree. Each node also has the option to report additional topology information (up to the full topology), to provide improved robustness in highly mobile networks. TBRPF performs neighbor discovery using "differential" HELLO messages which report only *changes* in the status of neighbors. This results in HELLO messages that are much smaller than those of other link-state routing protocols such as OSPF. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC4728 - The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for IPv4
The Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is a simple and efficient routing protocol designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. DSR allows the network to be completely self-organizing and self-configuring, without the need for any existing network infrastructure or administration. The protocol is composed of the two main mechanisms of "Route Discovery" and "Route Maintenance", which work together to allow nodes to discover and maintain routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc network. All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on demand, allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale automatically to only what is needed to react to changes in the routes currently in use. The protocol allows multiple routes to any destination and allows each sender to select and control the routes used in routing its packets, for example, for use in load balancing or for increased robustness. Other advantages of the DSR protocol include easily guaranteed loop-free routing, operation in networks containing unidirectional links, use of only "soft state" in routing, and very rapid recovery when routes in the network change. The DSR protocol is designed mainly for mobile ad hoc networks of up to about two hundred nodes and is designed to work well even with very high rates of mobility. This document specifies the operation of the DSR protocol for routing unicast IPv4 packets. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC5148 - Jitter Considerations in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
This document provides recommendations for jittering (randomly modifying timing) of control traffic transmissions in Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) routing protocols to reduce the probability of transmission collisions. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC5444 - Generalized Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Packet/Message Format
This document specifies a packet format capable of carrying multiple messages that may be used by mobile ad hoc network routing protocols. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC5497 - Representing Multi-Value Time in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
This document describes a general and flexible TLV (type-length-value structure) for representing time-values, such as an interval or a duration, using the generalized Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) packet/ message format. It defines two Message TLVs and two Address Block TLVs for representing validity and interval times for MANET routing protocols. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC5498 - IANA Allocations for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Protocols
This document enumerates several common IANA allocations for use by Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) protocols. The following well-known numbers are required: a UDP port number, an IP protocol number, and a link-local multicast group address. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC6130 - Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)
This document describes a 1-hop and symmetric 2-hop neighborhood discovery protocol (NHDP) for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC6621 - Simplified Multicast Forwarding
This document describes a Simplified Multicast Forwarding (SMF) mechanism that provides basic Internet Protocol (IP) multicast forwarding suitable for limited wireless mesh and mobile ad hoc network (MANET) use. It is mainly applicable in situations where efficient flooding represents an acceptable engineering design trade-off. It defines techniques for multicast duplicate packet detection (DPD), to be applied in the forwarding process, for both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol use. This document also specifies optional mechanisms for using reduced relay sets to achieve more efficient multicast data distribution within a mesh topology as compared to Classic Flooding. Interactions with other protocols, such as use of information provided by concurrently running unicast routing protocols or interaction with other multicast protocols, as well as multiple deployment approaches are also described. Distributed algorithms for selecting reduced relay sets and related discussion are provided in the appendices. Basic issues relating to the operation of multicast MANET border routers are discussed, but ongoing work remains in this area and is beyond the scope of this document. This document defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC6622 - Integrity Check Value and Timestamp TLV Definitions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
This document describes general and flexible TLVs for representing cryptographic Integrity Check Values (ICVs) (i.e., digital signatures or Message Authentication Codes (MACs)) as well as timestamps, using the generalized Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) packet/message format defined in RFC 5444. It defines two Packet TLVs, two Message TLVs, and two Address Block TLVs for affixing ICVs and timestamps to a packet, a message, and an address, respectively. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC6779 - Definition of Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol
This document defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet community. In particular, it describes objects for configuring parameters of the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) process on a router. The MIB module defined in this document, denoted NHDP-MIB, also reports state, performance information, and notifications about NHDP. This additional state and performance information is useful to troubleshoot problems and performance issues during neighbor discovery. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC7181 - The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2
This specification describes version 2 of the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSRv2) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs).
RFC7182 - Integrity Check Value and Timestamp TLV Definitions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
This document revises, extends, and replaces RFC 6622. It describes general and flexible TLVs for representing cryptographic Integrity Check Values (ICVs) and timestamps, using the generalized Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) packet/message format defined in RFC 5444. It defines two Packet TLVs, two Message TLVs, and two Address Block TLVs for affixing ICVs and timestamps to a packet, a message, and one or more addresses, respectively.
RFC7183 - Integrity Protection for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) and Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2)
This document specifies integrity and replay protection for the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) and the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2). This protection is achieved by using an HMAC-SHA-256 Integrity Check Value (ICV) TLV and a Timestamp TLV based on Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) time.
The mechanism in this specification can also be used for other protocols that use the generalized packet/message format described in RFC 5444.
This document updates RFC 6130 and RFC 7181 by mandating the implementation of this integrity and replay protection in NHDP and OLSRv2.
RFC7184 - Definition of Managed Objects for the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2
This document defines the Management Information Base (MIB) module for configuring and managing the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2). The OLSRv2-MIB module is structured into configuration information, state information, performance information, and notifications. This additional state and performance information is useful for troubleshooting problems and performance issues of the routing protocol. Two levels of compliance allow this MIB module to be deployed on constrained routers.
RFC7185 - Link Metrics for the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Routing Protocol OLSRv2 - Rationale
The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) includes the ability to assign metrics to links and to use those metrics to allow routing by other than minimum hop count routes. This document provides a historic record of the rationale for, and design considerations behind, how link metrics were included in OLSRv2.
RFC7186 - Security Threats for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)
This document analyzes common security threats of the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) and describes their potential impacts on Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) routing protocols using NHDP. This document is not intended to propose solutions to the threats described.
RFC7187 - Routing Multipoint Relay Optimization for the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2)
This specification updates the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) with an optimization to improve the selection of routing multipoint relays. The optimization retains full interoperability between implementations of OLSRv2 with and without this optimization.
RFC7188 - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2) and MANET Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) Extension TLVs
This specification describes extensions to definitions of TLVs used by the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) and the MANET Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) to increase their abilities to accommodate protocol extensions. This document updates RFC 7181 (OLSRv2) and RFC 6130 (NHDP).
RFC7367 - Definition of Managed Objects for the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Simplified Multicast Framework Relay Set Process
This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet community. In particular, it describes objects for configuring aspects of the Simplified Multicast Forwarding (SMF) process for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The SMF-MIB module also reports state information, performance information, and notifications. In addition to configuration, the additional state and performance information is useful to operators troubleshooting multicast forwarding problems.
RFC7466 - An Optimization for the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)
The link quality mechanism of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) enables "ignoring" some 1-hop neighbors if the measured link quality from that 1-hop neighbor is below an acceptable threshold while still retaining the corresponding link information as acquired from the HELLO message exchange. This allows immediate reinstatement of the 1-hop neighbor if the link quality later improves sufficiently.
NHDP also collects information about symmetric 2-hop neighbors. However, it specifies that if a link from a symmetric 1-hop neighbor ceases being symmetric, including while "ignored" (as described above), then corresponding symmetric 2-hop neighbors are removed. This may lead to symmetric 2-hop neighborhood information being permanently removed (until further HELLO messages are received) if the link quality of a symmetric 1-hop neighbor drops below the acceptable threshold, even if only for a moment.
This specification updates RFC 6130 "Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)" and RFC 7181 "The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2)" to permit, as an option, retaining, but ignoring, symmetric 2-hop information when the link quality from the corresponding 1-hop neighbor drops below the acceptable threshold. This allows immediate reinstatement of the symmetric 2-hop neighbor if the link quality later improves sufficiently, thus making the symmetric 2-hop neighborhood more "robust".
RFC7631 - TLV Naming in the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Generalized Packet/Message Format
This document reorganizes the naming of already-allocated TLV (type- length-value) types and type extensions in the "Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) Parameters" registries defined by RFC 5444 to use names appropriately. It has no consequences in terms of any protocol implementation.
This document also updates the Expert Review guidelines in RFC 5444, so as to establish a policy for consistent naming of future TLV type and type extension allocations. It makes no other changes to RFC 5444.
RFC7722 - Multi-Topology Extension for the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2)
This specification describes an extension to the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) to support multiple routing topologies, while retaining interoperability with OLSRv2 routers that do not implement this extension.
This specification updates RFCs 7188 and 7631 by modifying and extending TLV registries and descriptions.
RFC7779 - Directional Airtime Metric Based on Packet Sequence Numbers for Optimized Link State Routing Version 2 (OLSRv2)
This document specifies a Directional Airtime (DAT) link metric for usage in Optimized Link State Routing version 2 (OLSRv2).
RFC7859 - Identity-Based Signatures for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Routing Protocols
This document extends RFC 7182, which specifies a framework for (and specific examples of) Integrity Check Values (ICVs) for packets and messages using the generalized packet/message format specified in RFC 5444. It does so by defining an additional cryptographic function that allows the creation of an ICV that is an Identity-Based Signature (IBS), defined according to the Elliptic Curve-Based Certificateless Signatures for Identity-Based Encryption (ECCSI) algorithm specified in RFC 6507.
RFC7939 - Definition of Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol
This document replaces RFC 6779; it contains revisions and extensions to the original document. It defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet community. In particular, it describes objects for configuring parameters of the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) process on a router. The extensions described in this document add objects and values to support the NHDP optimization specified in RFC 7466. The MIB module defined in this document, denoted NHDP-MIB, also reports state, performance information, and notifications about NHDP. This additional state and performance information is useful to troubleshoot problems and performance issues during neighbor discovery.
RFC7985 - Security Threats to Simplified Multicast Forwarding (SMF)
This document analyzes security threats to Simplified Multicast Forwarding (SMF), including vulnerabilities of duplicate packet detection and relay set selection mechanisms. This document is not intended to propose solutions to the threats described.
In addition, this document updates RFC 7186 regarding threats to the relay set selection mechanisms using the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) (RFC 6130).
RFC8116 - Security Threats to the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2)
This document analyzes common security threats to the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) and describes their potential impacts on Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) operations. It also analyzes which of these security vulnerabilities can be mitigated when using the mandatory-to-implement security mechanisms for OLSRv2 and how the vulnerabilities are mitigated.
RFC8175 - Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP)
When routing devices rely on modems to effect communications over wireless links, they need timely and accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the link (speed, state, etc.) in order to make routing decisions. In mobile or other environments where these characteristics change frequently, manual configurations or the inference of state through routing or transport protocols does not allow the router to make the best decisions. This document introduces a new protocol called the Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP), which provides a bidirectional, event-driven communication channel between the router and the modem to facilitate communication of changing link characteristics.
RFC8218 - Multipath Extension for the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2)
This document specifies a multipath extension for the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) to discover multiple disjoint paths for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). Considering the characteristics of MANETs, especially the dynamic network topology, using multiple paths can increase aggregated throughput and improve the reliability by avoiding single route failures. The interoperability with OLSRv2 is retained.
RFC8245 - Rules for Designing Protocols Using the Generalized Packet/Message Format from RFC 5444
RFC 5444 specifies a generalized Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) packet/message format and describes an intended use for multiplexed MANET routing protocol messages; this use is mandated by RFC 5498 when using the MANET port or protocol number that it specifies. This document updates RFC 5444 by providing rules and recommendations for how the multiplexer operates and how protocols can use the packet/message format. In particular, the mandatory rules prohibit a number of uses that have been suggested in various proposals and that would have led to interoperability problems, to the impediment of protocol extension development, and/or to an inability to use optional generic parsers.