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RFC3906 - Calculating Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Routes Over Traffic Engineering Tunnels
This document describes how conventional hop-by-hop link-state routing protocols interact with new Traffic Engineering capabilities to create Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) shortcuts. In particular, this document describes how Dijkstra's Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm can be adapted so that link-state IGPs will calculate IP routes to forward traffic over tunnels that are set up by Traffic Engineering. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC5082 - The Generalized TTL Security Mechanism (GTSM)
The use of a packet's Time to Live (TTL) (IPv4) or Hop Limit (IPv6) to verify whether the packet was originated by an adjacent node on a connected link has been used in many recent protocols. This document generalizes this technique. This document obsoletes Experimental RFC 3682. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC5286 - Basic Specification for IP Fast Reroute: Loop-Free Alternates
This document describes the use of loop-free alternates to provide local protection for unicast traffic in pure IP and MPLS/LDP networks in the event of a single failure, whether link, node, or shared risk link group (SRLG). The goal of this technology is to reduce the packet loss that happens while routers converge after a topology change due to a failure. Rapid failure repair is achieved through use of precalculated backup next-hops that are loop-free and safe to use until the distributed network convergence process completes. This simple approach does not require any support from other routers. The extent to which this goal can be met by this specification is dependent on the topology of the network. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC5714 - IP Fast Reroute Framework
This document provides a framework for the development of IP fast- reroute mechanisms that provide protection against link or router failure by invoking locally determined repair paths. Unlike MPLS fast-reroute, the mechanisms are applicable to a network employing conventional IP routing and forwarding. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
RFC5715 - A Framework for Loop-Free Convergence
A micro-loop is a packet forwarding loop that may occur transiently among two or more routers in a hop-by-hop packet forwarding paradigm.
This framework provides a summary of the causes and consequences of micro-loops and enables the reader to form a judgement on whether micro-looping is an issue that needs to be addressed in specific networks. It also provides a survey of the currently proposed mechanisms that may be used to prevent or to suppress the formation of micro-loops when an IP or MPLS network undergoes topology change due to failure, repair, or management action. When sufficiently fast convergence is not available and the topology is susceptible to micro-loops, use of one or more of these mechanisms may be desirable. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
RFC6571 - Loop-Free Alternate (LFA) Applicability in Service Provider (SP) Networks
In this document, we analyze the applicability of the Loop-Free Alternate (LFA) method of providing IP fast reroute in both the core and access parts of Service Provider networks. We consider both the link and node failure cases, and provide guidance on the applicability of LFAs to different network topologies, with special emphasis on the access parts of the network. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
RFC6976 - Framework for Loop-Free Convergence Using the Ordered Forwarding Information Base (oFIB) Approach
This document describes an illustrative framework of a mechanism for use in conjunction with link-state routing protocols that prevents the transient loops that would otherwise occur during topology changes. It does this by correctly sequencing the forwarding information base (FIB) updates on the routers.
This mechanism can be used in the case of non-urgent (management action) link or node shutdowns and restarts or link metric changes. It can also be used in conjunction with a fast reroute mechanism that converts a sudden link or node failure into a non-urgent topology change. This is possible where a complete repair path is provided for all affected destinations.
After a non-urgent topology change, each router computes a rank that defines the time at which it can safely update its FIB. A method for accelerating this loop-free convergence process by the use of completion messages is also described.
The technology described in this document has been subject to extensive simulation using pathological convergence behavior and real network topologies and costs. However, the mechanisms described in this document are purely illustrative of the general approach and do not constitute a protocol specification. This document represents a snapshot of the work of the Routing Area Working Group at the time of publication and is published as a document of record. Further work is needed before implementation or deployment.
RFC6981 - A Framework for IP and MPLS Fast Reroute Using Not-Via Addresses
This document presents an illustrative framework for providing fast reroute in an IP or MPLS network through encapsulation and forwarding to "not-via" addresses. The general approach described here uses a single level of encapsulation and could be used to protect unicast, multicast, and LDP traffic against link, router, and shared risk group failure, regardless of network topology and metrics.
The mechanisms presented in this document are purely illustrative of the general approach and do not constitute a protocol specification. The document represents a snapshot of the work of the Routing Area Working Group at the time of publication and is published as a document of record. Further work is needed before implementation or deployment.
RFC7226 - Requirements for Advanced Multipath in MPLS Networks
This document provides a set of requirements for Advanced Multipath in MPLS networks.
Advanced Multipath is a formalization of multipath techniques currently in use in IP and MPLS networks and a set of extensions to existing multipath techniques.
RFC7431 - Multicast-Only Fast Reroute
As IPTV deployments grow in number and size, service providers are looking for solutions that minimize the service disruption due to faults in the IP network carrying the packets for these services. This document describes a mechanism for minimizing packet loss in a network when node or link failures occur. Multicast-only Fast Reroute (MoFRR) works by making simple enhancements to multicast routing protocols such as Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) and Multipoint LDP (mLDP).
RFC7490 - Remote Loop-Free Alternate (LFA) Fast Reroute (FRR)
This document describes an extension to the basic IP fast reroute mechanism, described in RFC 5286, that provides additional backup connectivity for point-to-point link failures when none can be provided by the basic mechanisms.
RFC7811 - An Algorithm for Computing IP/LDP Fast Reroute Using Maximally Redundant Trees (MRT-FRR)
This document supports the solution put forth in "An Architecture for IP/LDP Fast Reroute Using Maximally Redundant Trees (MRT-FRR)" (RFC 7812) by defining the associated MRT Lowpoint algorithm that is used in the Default MRT Profile to compute both the necessary Maximally Redundant Trees with their associated next hops and the alternates to select for MRT-FRR.
RFC7812 - An Architecture for IP/LDP Fast Reroute Using Maximally Redundant Trees (MRT-FRR)
This document defines the architecture for IP and LDP Fast Reroute using Maximally Redundant Trees (MRT-FRR). MRT-FRR is a technology that gives link-protection and node-protection with 100% coverage in any network topology that is still connected after the failure.
RFC7916 - Operational Management of Loop-Free Alternates
Loop-Free Alternates (LFAs), as defined in RFC 5286, constitute an IP Fast Reroute (IP FRR) mechanism enabling traffic protection for IP traffic (and, by extension, MPLS LDP traffic). Following early deployment experiences, this document provides operational feedback on LFAs, highlights some limitations, and proposes a set of refinements to address those limitations. It also proposes required management specifications.
This proposal is also applicable to remote-LFA solutions.
RFC7938 - Use of BGP for Routing in Large-Scale Data Centers
Some network operators build and operate data centers that support over one hundred thousand servers. In this document, such data centers are referred to as "large-scale" to differentiate them from smaller infrastructures. Environments of this scale have a unique set of network requirements with an emphasis on operational simplicity and network stability. This document summarizes operational experience in designing and operating large-scale data centers using BGP as the only routing protocol. The intent is to report on a proven and stable routing design that could be leveraged by others in the industry.
RFC8102 - Remote-LFA Node Protection and Manageability
The loop-free alternates (LFAs) computed following the current remote-LFA specification guarantees only link protection. The resulting remote-LFA next hops (also called "PQ-nodes") may not guarantee node protection for all destinations being protected by it.
This document describes an extension to the remote-loop-free-based IP fast reroute mechanisms that specifies procedures for determining whether or not a given PQ-node provides node protection for a specific destination. The document also shows how the same procedure can be utilized for the collection of complete characteristics for alternate paths. Knowledge about the characteristics of all alternate paths is a precursor to applying the operator-defined policy for eliminating paths not fitting the constraints.
RFC8177 - YANG Data Model for Key Chains
This document describes the key chain YANG data model. Key chains are commonly used for routing protocol authentication and other applications requiring symmetric keys. A key chain is a list containing one or more elements containing a Key ID, key string, send/accept lifetimes, and the associated authentication or encryption algorithm. By properly overlapping the send and accept lifetimes of multiple key chain elements, key strings and algorithms may be gracefully updated. By representing them in a YANG data model, key distribution can be automated.