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RFC9521

  1. RFC 9521
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                            X. Min
Request for Comments: 9521                                     ZTE Corp.
Category: Standards Track                                      G. Mirsky
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                 Ericsson
                                                           S. Pallagatti
                                                                  VMware
                                                             J. Tantsura
                                                                  Nvidia
                                                               S. Aldrin
                                                                  Google
                                                            January 2024


      Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) for Generic Network
                 Virtualization Encapsulation (Geneve)

Abstract

   This document describes the use of the Bidirectional Forwarding
   Detection (BFD) protocol in point-to-point Generic Network
   Virtualization Encapsulation (Geneve) unicast tunnels used to make up
   an overlay network.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9521.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Revised BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the
   Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described
   in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Conventions Used in This Document
     2.1.  Abbreviations
     2.2.  Requirements Language
   3.  BFD Packet Transmission over a Geneve Tunnel
   4.  BFD Encapsulation with the Inner Ethernet/IP/UDP Header
     4.1.  Demultiplexing a BFD Packet When the Payload Is Ethernet
   5.  BFD Encapsulation with the Inner IP/UDP Header
     5.1.  Demultiplexing a BFD Packet When the Payload Is IP
   6.  Security Considerations
   7.  IANA Considerations
   8.  References
     8.1.  Normative References
     8.2.  Informative References
   Acknowledgements
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   "Geneve: Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation" [RFC8926]
   provides an encapsulation scheme that allows building an overlay
   network of tunnels by decoupling the address space of the attached
   virtual hosts from that of the network.

   This document describes the use of the Bidirectional Forwarding
   Detection (BFD) protocol [RFC5880] to enable monitoring the
   continuity of the path between two Geneve tunnel endpoints, which may
   be a Network Virtualization Edge (NVE) or another device acting as a
   Geneve tunnel endpoint.  Specifically, the asynchronous mode of BFD,
   as defined in [RFC5880], is used to monitor a point-to-point (P2P)
   Geneve tunnel.  The support for the BFD Echo function is outside the
   scope of this document.  For simplicity, an NVE is used to represent
   the Geneve tunnel endpoint.  A Tenant System (TS) is used to
   represent the physical or virtual device attached to a Geneve tunnel
   endpoint from the outside.  A Virtual Access Point (VAP) is the NVE
   side of the interface between the NVE and the TS, and a VAP is a
   logical network port (virtual or physical) into a specific virtual
   network.  For detailed definitions and descriptions of NVE, TS, and
   VAP, please refer to [RFC7365] and [RFC8014].

   The use cases and the deployment of BFD for Geneve are mostly
   consistent with what's described in Sections 1 and 3 of [RFC8971].
   One exception is the usage of the Management Virtual Network
   Identifier (VNI), which is described in [GENEVE-OAM] and is outside
   the scope of this document.

   As specified in Section 4.2 of [RFC8926], Geneve MUST be used with
   congestion controlled traffic or within a Traffic-Managed Controlled
   Environment (TMCE) to avoid congestion; that requirement also applies
   to BFD traffic.  Specifically, considering the complexity and
   immaturity of the BFD congestion control mechanism, BFD for Geneve
   MUST be used within a TMCE unless BFD is really congestion
   controlled.  As an alternative to a real congestion control, an
   operator of a TMCE deploying BFD for Geneve is required to provision
   the rates at which BFD is transmitted to avoid congestion and false
   failure detection.

2.  Conventions Used in This Document

2.1.  Abbreviations

   BFD:  Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

   FCS:  Frame Check Sequence

   Geneve:  Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation

   NVE:  Network Virtualization Edge

   TMCE:  Traffic-Managed Controlled Environment

   TS:  Tenant System

   VAP:  Virtual Access Point

   VNI:  Virtual Network Identifier

   VXLAN:  Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network

2.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  BFD Packet Transmission over a Geneve Tunnel

   Since the Geneve data packet payload may be either an Ethernet frame
   or an IP packet, this document defines two formats of BFD packet
   encapsulation in Geneve.  The BFD session is originated and
   terminated at the VAP of an NVE.  The selection of the BFD packet
   encapsulation is based on how the VAP encapsulates the data packets.
   If the payload is IP, then BFD over IP is carried in the payload.  If
   the payload is Ethernet, then BFD over IP over Ethernet is carried in
   the payload.  This occurs in the same manner as BFD over IP in the IP
   payload case, regardless of what the Ethernet payload might normally
   carry.

4.  BFD Encapsulation with the Inner Ethernet/IP/UDP Header

   If the VAP that originates the BFD packets is used to encapsulate
   Ethernet data frames, then the BFD packets are encapsulated in Geneve
   as described below.  The Geneve packet formats over IPv4 and IPv6 are
   defined in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 of [RFC8926], respectively.  The
   outer IP/UDP and Geneve headers are encoded by the sender as defined
   in [RFC8926].  Note that the outer IP header and the inner IP header
   may not be of the same address family.  In other words, an outer IPv6
   header accompanied by an inner IPv4 header and an outer IPv4 header
   accompanied by an inner IPv6 header are both possible.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                      Outer Ethernet Header                    ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        Outer IPvX Header                      ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        Outer UDP Header                       ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                          Geneve Header                        ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                      Inner Ethernet Header                    ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        Inner IPvX Header                      ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Inner UDP Header                      ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        BFD Control Packet                     ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Outer Ethernet FCS                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 1: Geneve Encapsulation of a BFD Control Packet with the Inner
                           Ethernet/IP/UDP Header

   The BFD packet MUST be carried inside the inner Ethernet frame of the
   Geneve packet.  The inner Ethernet frame carrying the BFD Control
   packet has the following format:

   Inner Ethernet Header:
      Destination MAC:  Media Access Control (MAC) address of a VAP of
         the terminating NVE.

      Source MAC:  MAC address of a VAP of the originating NVE.

   IP Header:
      Source IP:  IP address of a VAP of the originating NVE.  If the
         VAP of the originating NVE has no IP address, then the IP
         address 0.0.0.0 for IPv4 or ::/128 for IPv6 MUST be used.

      Destination IP:  IP address of a VAP of the terminating NVE.  If
         the VAP of the terminating NVE has no IP address, then the IP
         address 127.0.0.1 for IPv4 or ::1/128 for IPv6 MUST be used.

      TTL or Hop Limit:  The TTL for IPv4 or Hop Limit for IPv6 MUST be
         set to 255 in accordance with [RFC5881], which specifies the
         IPv4/IPv6 single-hop BFD.

      The fields of the UDP header and the BFD Control packet are
      encoded as specified in [RFC5881].

   When the BFD packets are encapsulated in Geneve in this way, the
   Geneve header defined in [RFC8926] follows the value set below.

   *  The Opt Len field MUST be set as consistent with the Geneve
      specification ([RFC8926]) depending on whether or not Geneve
      options are present in the frame.  The use of Geneve options with
      BFD is beyond the scope of this document.

   *  The O bit MUST be set to 1, which indicates this packet contains a
      control message.

   *  The C bit MUST be set to 0, which indicates there isn't any
      critical option.

   *  The Protocol Type field MUST be set to 0x6558 (Ethernet frame).

   *  The Virtual Network Identifier (VNI) field MUST be set to the VNI
      number that the originating VAP is mapped to.

4.1.  Demultiplexing a BFD Packet When the Payload Is Ethernet

   Once a packet is received, the NVE validates the packet as described
   in [RFC8926].  When the payload is Ethernet, the Protocol Type field
   equals 0x6558.  The destination MAC address of the inner Ethernet
   frame matches the MAC address of a VAP, which is mapped to the same
   VNI as the received VNI.  Then, the destination IP, the UDP
   destination port, and the TTL or Hop Limit of the inner IP packet
   MUST be validated to determine whether the received packet can be
   processed by BFD (i.e., the three field values of the inner IP packet
   MUST be in compliance with what's defined in Section 4 of this
   document, as well as Section 4 of [RFC5881]).  If the validation
   fails, the received packet MUST NOT be processed by BFD.

   In BFD over Geneve, a BFD session is originated and terminated at a
   VAP.  Usually one NVE owns multiple VAPs.  Since multiple BFD
   sessions may be running between two NVEs, there needs to be a
   mechanism for demultiplexing received BFD packets to the proper
   session.  Furthermore, due to the fact that [RFC8014] allows for
   N-to-1 mapping between VAPs and VNIs at one NVE, multiple BFD
   sessions between two NVEs for the same VNI are allowed.  Also, note
   that a BFD session can only be established between two VAPs that are
   mapped to the same VNI and that use the same way to encapsulate data
   packets.

   If the BFD packet is received with the value of the Your
   Discriminator field set to 0, then the BFD session SHOULD be
   identified using the VNI number and the inner Ethernet/IP header.
   The inner Ethernet/IP header stands for the source MAC, the source
   IP, the destination MAC, and the destination IP.  An implementation
   MAY use the inner UDP port source number to aid in demultiplexing
   incoming BFD Control packets.  If it fails to identify the BFD
   session, the incoming BFD Control packets MUST be dropped, and an
   exception event indicating the failure should be reported to the
   management.

   If the BFD packet is received with a non-zero Your Discriminator,
   then the BFD session MUST be demultiplexed only with the Your
   Discriminator as the key.

5.  BFD Encapsulation with the Inner IP/UDP Header

   If the VAP that originates the BFD packets is used to encapsulate IP
   data packets, then the BFD packets are encapsulated in Geneve as
   described below.  The Geneve packet formats over IPv4 and IPv6 are
   defined in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 of [RFC8926], respectively.  The
   outer IP/UDP and Geneve headers are encoded by the sender as defined
   in [RFC8926].  Note that the outer IP header and the inner IP header
   may not be of the same address family.  In other words, an outer IPv6
   header accompanied by an inner IPv4 header and an outer IPv4 header
   accompanied by an inner IPv6 header are both possible.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Ethernet Header                       ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        Outer IPvX Header                      ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        Outer UDP Header                       ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                          Geneve Header                        ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        Inner IPvX Header                      ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Inner UDP Header                      ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        BFD Control Packet                     ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               FCS                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure 2: Geneve Encapsulation of a BFD Control Packet with the
                            Inner IP/UDP Header

   The BFD packet MUST be carried inside the inner IP packet of the
   Geneve packet.  The inner IP packet carrying the BFD Control packet
   has the following format:

   Inner IP Header:
      Source IP:  IP address of a VAP of the originating NVE.

      Destination IP:  IP address of a VAP of the terminating NVE.

      TTL or Hop Limit:  The TTL for IPv4 or Hop Limit for IPv6 MUST be
         set to 255 in accordance with [RFC5881], which specifies the
         IPv4/IPv6 single-hop BFD.

      The fields of the UDP header and the BFD Control packet are
      encoded as specified in [RFC5881].

   When the BFD packets are encapsulated in Geneve in this way, the
   Geneve header defined in [RFC8926] follows the value set below.

   *  The Opt Len field MUST be set as consistent with the Geneve
      specification ([RFC8926]) depending on whether or not Geneve
      options are present in the frame.  The use of Geneve options with
      BFD is beyond the scope of this document.

   *  The O bit MUST be set to 1, which indicates this packet contains a
      control message.

   *  The C bit MUST be set to 0, which indicates there isn't any
      critical option.

   *  The Protocol Type field MUST be set to 0x0800 (IPv4) or 0x86DD
      (IPv6), depending on the address family of the inner IP packet.

   *  The Virtual Network Identifier (VNI) field MUST be set to the VNI
      number that the originating VAP is mapped to.

5.1.  Demultiplexing a BFD Packet When the Payload Is IP

   Once a packet is received, the NVE validates the packet as described
   in [RFC8926].  When the payload is IP, the Protocol Type field equals
   0x0800 or 0x86DD.  The destination IP address of the inner IP packet
   matches the IP address of a VAP, which is mapped to the same VNI as
   the received VNI.  Then, the UDP destination port and the TTL or Hop
   Limit of the inner IP packet MUST be validated to determine whether
   or not the received packet can be processed by BFD (i.e., the two
   field values of the inner IP packet MUST be in compliance with what's
   defined in Section 5 of this document as well as Section 4 of
   [RFC5881]).  If the validation fails, the received packet MUST NOT be
   processed by BFD.

   If the BFD packet is received with the value of the Your
   Discriminator field set to 0, then the BFD session SHOULD be
   identified using the VNI number and the inner IP header.  The inner
   IP header stands for the source IP and the destination IP.  An
   implementation MAY use the inner UDP port source number to aid in
   demultiplexing incoming BFD Control packets.  If it fails to identify
   the BFD session, the incoming BFD Control packets MUST be dropped,
   and an exception event indicating the failure should be reported to
   the management.

   If the BFD packet is received with a non-zero Your Discriminator,
   then the BFD session MUST be demultiplexed only with the Your
   Discriminator as the key.

6.  Security Considerations

   Security issues discussed in [RFC8926] and [RFC5880] apply to this
   document.  Particularly, the BFD is an application that is run at the
   two Geneve tunnel endpoints.  The IP underlay network and/or the
   Geneve option can provide security between the peers, which are
   subject to the issue of overload described below.  The BFD introduces
   no security vulnerabilities when run in this manner.  Considering
   Geneve does not have any inherent security mechanisms, BFD
   authentication as specified in [RFC5880] is RECOMMENDED to be
   utilized.

   This document supports establishing multiple BFD sessions between the
   same pair of NVEs.  For each BFD session over a pair of VAPs residing
   in the same pair of NVEs, there SHOULD be a mechanism to control the
   maximum number of such sessions that can be active at the same time.
   Particularly, assuming an example that each NVE of the pair of NVEs
   has N VAPs using Ethernet as the payload, then there could be N
   squared BFD sessions running between the pair of NVEs.  Considering N
   could be a high number, the N squared BFD sessions could result in
   overload of the NVE.  In this case, it's recommended that N BFD
   sessions covering all N VAPs are run for the pair of NVEs.  Generally
   speaking, the number of BFD sessions is supposed to be enough as long
   as all VAPs of the pair of NVEs are covered.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5880]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD)", RFC 5880, DOI 10.17487/RFC5880, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5880>.

   [RFC5881]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD) for IPv4 and IPv6 (Single Hop)", RFC 5881,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5881, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5881>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8926]  Gross, J., Ed., Ganga, I., Ed., and T. Sridhar, Ed.,
              "Geneve: Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation",
              RFC 8926, DOI 10.17487/RFC8926, November 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8926>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [GENEVE-OAM]
              Mirsky, G., Boutros, S., Black, D., and S. Pallagatti,
              "OAM for use in GENEVE", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-nvo3-geneve-oam-09, 6 December 2023,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-nvo3-
              geneve-oam-09>.

   [RFC7365]  Lasserre, M., Balus, F., Morin, T., Bitar, N., and Y.
              Rekhter, "Framework for Data Center (DC) Network
              Virtualization", RFC 7365, DOI 10.17487/RFC7365, October
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7365>.

   [RFC8014]  Black, D., Hudson, J., Kreeger, L., Lasserre, M., and T.
              Narten, "An Architecture for Data-Center Network
              Virtualization over Layer 3 (NVO3)", RFC 8014,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8014, December 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8014>.

   [RFC8971]  Pallagatti, S., Ed., Mirsky, G., Ed., Paragiri, S.,
              Govindan, V., and M. Mudigonda, "Bidirectional Forwarding
              Detection (BFD) for Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network
              (VXLAN)", RFC 8971, DOI 10.17487/RFC8971, December 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8971>.

Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge Reshad Rahman, Jeffrey Haas,
   and Matthew Bocci for their guidance on this work.

   The authors would like to acknowledge David Black for his explanation
   on the mapping relation between VAPs and VNIs.

   The authors would like to acknowledge Stewart Bryant, Anoop Ghanwani,
   Jeffrey Haas, Reshad Rahman, Matthew Bocci, Andrew Alston, Magnus
   Westerlund, Paul Kyzivat, Sheng Jiang, Carl Wallace, Roman Danyliw,
   John Scudder, Donald Eastlake 3rd, √Čric Vyncke, Zaheduzzaman Sarker,
   and Lars Eggert for their thorough review and very helpful comments.

Authors' Addresses

   Xiao Min
   ZTE Corp.
   Nanjing
   China
   Phone: +86 18061680168
   Email: xiao.min2@zte.com.cn


   Greg Mirsky
   Ericsson
   United States of America
   Email: gregimirsky@gmail.com


   Santosh Pallagatti
   VMware
   India
   Email: santosh.pallagatti@gmail.com


   Jeff Tantsura
   Nvidia
   United States of America
   Email: jefftant.ietf@gmail.com


   Sam Aldrin
   Google
   United States of America
   Email: aldrin.ietf@gmail.com
  1. RFC 9521