1. RFC 9374
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                      R. Moskowitz
Request for Comments: 9374                                HTT Consulting
Updates: 7343, 7401                                              S. Card
Category: Standards Track                                A. Wiethuechter
ISSN: 2070-1721                                       AX Enterprize, LLC
                                                               A. Gurtov
                                                    Linköping University
                                                              March 2023

 DRIP Entity Tag (DET) for Unmanned Aircraft System Remote ID (UAS RID)


   This document describes the use of Hierarchical Host Identity Tags
   (HHITs) as self-asserting IPv6 addresses, which makes them trustable
   identifiers for use in Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification
   (UAS RID) and tracking.

   Within the context of RID, HHITs will be called DRIP Entity Tags
   (DETs).  HHITs provide claims to the included explicit hierarchy that
   provides registry (via, for example, DNS, RDAP) discovery for third-
   party identifier endorsement.

   This document updates RFCs 7343 and 7401.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2023 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Revised BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the
   Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described
   in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  HHIT Statistical Uniqueness Different from UUID or X.509
   2.  Terms and Definitions
     2.1.  Requirements Terminology
     2.2.  Notation
     2.3.  Definitions
   3.  The Hierarchical Host Identity Tag (HHIT)
     3.1.  HHIT Prefix for RID Purposes
     3.2.  HHIT Suite IDs
       3.2.1.  HDA Custom HIT Suite IDs
     3.3.  The Hierarchy ID (HID)
       3.3.1.  The Registered Assigning Authority (RAA)
       3.3.2.  The HHIT Domain Authority (HDA)
     3.4.  Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm for HHITs
       3.4.1.  HOST_ID
       3.4.2.  HIT_SUITE_LIST
     3.5.  ORCHIDs for HHITs
       3.5.1.  Adding Additional Information to the ORCHID
       3.5.2.  ORCHID Encoding
       3.5.3.  ORCHID Decoding
       3.5.4.  Decoding ORCHIDs for HIPv2
   4.  HHITs as DRIP Entity Tags
     4.1.  Nontransferablity of DETs
     4.2.  Encoding HHITs in CTA 2063-A Serial Numbers
     4.3.  Remote ID DET as one Class of HHITs
     4.4.  Hierarchy in ORCHID Generation
     4.5.  DRIP Entity Tag (DET) Registry
     4.6.  Remote ID Authentication Using DETs
   5.  DRIP Entity Tags (DETs) in DNS
   6.  Other UAS Traffic Management (UTM) Uses of HHITs Beyond DET
   7.  Summary of Addressed DRIP Requirements
   8.  IANA Considerations
     8.1.  New Well-Known IPv6 Prefix for DETs
     8.2.  New IANA DRIP Registry
       8.2.1.  HHIT Prefixes
       8.2.2.  HHIT Suite IDs
     8.3.  IANA CGA Registry Update
     8.4.  IANA HIP Registry Updates
   9.  Security Considerations
     9.1.  Post-Quantum Computing Is Out of Scope
     9.2.  DET Trust in ASTM Messaging
     9.3.  DET Revocation
     9.4.  Privacy Considerations
     9.5.  Collision Risks with DETs
   10. References
     10.1.  Normative References
     10.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  EU U-Space RID Privacy Considerations
   Appendix B.  The 14/14 HID split
     B.1.  DET Encoding Example
   Appendix C.  Base32 Alphabet
   Appendix D.  Calculating Collision Probabilities
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   Drone Remote ID Protocol (DRIP) Requirements [RFC9153] describe an
   Unmanned Aircraft System Remote ID (UAS ID) as unique (ID-4), non-
   spoofable (ID-5), and identify a registry where the ID is listed
   (ID-2); all within a 19-character identifier (ID-1).

   This RFC is a foundational document of DRIP, as it describes the use
   of Hierarchical Host Identity Tags (HHITs) (Section 3) as self-
   asserting IPv6 addresses and thereby a trustable identifier for use
   as the UAS Remote ID (see Section 3 of [DRIP-ARCH]).  All other DRIP-
   related technologies will enable or use HHITs as multipurpose remote
   identifiers.  HHITs add explicit hierarchy to the 128-bit HITs,
   enabling DNS HHIT queries (Host ID for authentication, e.g.,
   [DRIP-AUTH]) and use with a Differentiated Access Control (e.g.,
   Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) [RFC9224]) for 3rd-party
   identification endorsement (e.g., [DRIP-AUTH]).

   The addition of hierarchy to HITs is an extension to [RFC7401] and
   requires an update to [RFC7343].  As this document also adds EdDSA
   (Section 3.4) for Host Identities (HIs), a number of Host Identity
   Protocol (HIP) parameters in [RFC7401] are updated, but these should
   not be needed in a DRIP implementation that does not use HIP.

   HHITs as used within the context of UAS are labeled as DRIP Entity
   Tags (DETs).  Throughout this document, HHIT and DET will be used
   appropriately.  HHIT will be used when covering the technology, and
   DET will be used in the context of UAS RID.

   HHITs provide self-claims of the HHIT registry.  A HHIT can only be
   in a single registry within a registry system (e.g., DNS).

   HHITs are valid, though non-routable, IPv6 addresses [RFC8200].  As
   such, they fit in many ways within various IETF technologies.

1.1.  HHIT Statistical Uniqueness Different from UUID or X.509 Subject

   HHITs are statistically unique through the cryptographic hash feature
   of second-preimage resistance.  The cryptographically bound addition
   of the hierarchy and a HHIT registration process [DRIP-REG] provide
   complete, global HHIT uniqueness.  If the HHITs cannot be looked up
   with services provided by the DRIP Identity Management Entity (DIME)
   identified via the embedded hierarchical information or its
   registration validated by registration endorsement messages
   [DRIP-AUTH], then the HHIT is either fraudulent or revoked/expired.
   In-depth discussion of these processes are out of scope for this

   This contrasts with using general identifiers (e.g., Universally
   Unique IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122] or device serial numbers) as the
   subject in an X.509 [RFC5280] certificate.  In either case, there can
   be no unique proof of ownership/registration.

   For example, in a multi-Certificate Authority (multi-CA) PKI
   alternative to HHITs, a Remote ID as the Subject (Section of
   [RFC5280]) can occur in multiple CAs, possibly fraudulently.  CAs
   within the PKI would need to implement an approach to enforce
   assurance of the uniqueness achieved with HHITs.

2.  Terms and Definitions

2.1.  Requirements Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119]
   [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown

   The document includes a set of algorithms and recommends the ones
   that should be supported by implementations.  The following term is
   used for that purpose: RECOMMENDED.

2.2.  Notation

   |  Signifies concatenation of information, e.g., X | Y is the
      concatenation of X and Y.

2.3.  Definitions

   This document uses the terms defined in Section 2.2 of [RFC9153] and
   in Section 2 of [DRIP-ARCH].  The following terms are used in the

   cSHAKE (The customizable SHAKE function [NIST.SP.800-185]):
      Extends the SHAKE scheme [NIST.FIPS.202] to allow users to
      customize their use of the SHAKE function.

   HDA (HHIT Domain Authority):
      The 14-bit field that identifies the HHIT Domain Authority under a
      Registered Assigning Authority (RAA).  See Figure 1.

   HHIT (Hierarchical Host Identity Tag):
      A HIT with extra hierarchical information not found in a standard
      HIT [RFC7401].

   HI (Host Identity):
      The public key portion of an asymmetric key pair as defined in

   HID (Hierarchy ID):
      The 28-bit field providing the HIT Hierarchy ID.  See Figure 1.

   HIP (Host Identity Protocol):
      The origin of HI, HIT, and HHIT [RFC7401].

   HIT (Host Identity Tag):
      A 128-bit handle on the HI.  HITs are valid IPv6 addresses.

   Keccak (KECCAK Message Authentication Code):
      The family of all sponge functions with a KECCAK-f permutation as
      the underlying function and multi-rate padding as the padding
      rule.  In particular, it refers to all the functions referenced
      from [NIST.FIPS.202] and [NIST.SP.800-185].

   KMAC (KECCAK Message Authentication Code [NIST.SP.800-185]):
      A Pseudo Random Function (PRF) and keyed hash function based on

   RAA (Registered Assigning Authority):
      The 14-bit field identifying the business or organization that
      manages a registry of HDAs.  See Figure 1.

   RVS (Rendezvous Server):
      A Rendezvous Server such as the HIP Rendezvous Server for enabling
      mobility, as defined in [RFC8004].

   SHAKE (Secure Hash Algorithm KECCAK [NIST.FIPS.202]):
      A secure hash that allows for an arbitrary output length.

   XOF (eXtendable-Output Function [NIST.FIPS.202]):
      A function on bit strings (also called messages) in which the
      output can be extended to any desired length.

3.  The Hierarchical Host Identity Tag (HHIT)

   The HHIT is a small but important enhancement over the flat Host
   Identity Tag (HIT) space, constructed as an Overlay Routable
   Cryptographic Hash IDentifier (ORCHID) [RFC7343].  By adding two
   levels of hierarchical administration control, the HHIT provides for
   device registration/ownership, thereby enhancing the trust framework
   for HITs.

   The 128-bit HHITs represent the HI in only a 64-bit hash, rather than
   the 96 bits in HITs. 4 of these 32 freed up bits expand the Suite ID
   to 8 bits, and the other 28 bits are used to create a hierarchical
   administration organization for HIT domains.  HHIT construction is
   defined in Section 3.5.  The input values for the encoding rules are
   described in Section 3.5.1.

   A HHIT is built from the following fields (Figure 1):

   *  p = an IPv6 prefix (max 28 bit)

   *  28-bit HID which provides the structure to organize HITs into
      administrative domains.  HIDs are further divided into two fields:

      -  14-bit Registered Assigning Authority (RAA) (Section 3.3.1)

      -  14-bit HHIT Domain Authority (HDA) (Section 3.3.2)

   *  8-bit HHIT Suite ID (HHSI)

   *  ORCHID hash (92 - prefix length, e.g., 64) See Section 3.5 for
      more details.

                  14 bits| 14 bits              8 bits
                 +-------+-------+         +--------------+
                 |  RAA  | HDA   |         |HHIT Suite ID |
                 +-------+-------+         +--------------+
                  \              |    ____/   ___________/
                   \             \  _/    ___/
                    \             \/     /
      |    p bits    |  28 bits   |8bits|      o=92-p bits       |
      | IPv6 Prefix  |    HID     |HHSI |      ORCHID hash       |

                           Figure 1: HHIT Format

   The Context ID (generated with openssl rand) for the ORCHID hash is:

       Context ID :=  0x00B5 A69C 795D F5D5 F008 7F56 843F 2C40

   Context IDs are allocated out of the namespace introduced for
   Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA) Type Tags [RFC3972].

3.1.  HHIT Prefix for RID Purposes

   The IPv6 HHIT prefix MUST be distinct from that used in the flat-
   space HIT as allocated in [RFC7343].  Without this distinct prefix,
   the first 4 bits of the RAA would be interpreted as the HIT Suite ID
   per HIPv2 [RFC7401].

   Initially, the IPv6 prefix listed in Table 1 is assigned for DET use.
   It has been registered in the "IANA IPv6 Special-Purpose Address
   Registry" [RFC6890].

                    | HHIT Use | Bits | Value        |
                    | DET      | 28   | 2001:30::/28 |

                     Table 1: Initial DET IPv6 Prefix

   Other prefixes may be added in the future either for DET use or other
   applications of HHITs.  For a prefix to be added to the registry in
   Section 8.2, its usage and HID allocation process have to be publicly

3.2.  HHIT Suite IDs

   The HHIT Suite IDs specify the HI and hash algorithms.  These are a
   superset of the 4-bit and 8-bit HIT Suite IDs as defined in
   Section 5.2.10 of [RFC7401].

   The HHIT values 1 - 15 map to the basic 4-bit HIT Suite IDs.  HHIT
   values 17 - 31 map to the extended 8-bit HIT Suite IDs.  HHIT values
   unique to HHIT will start with value 32.

   As HHIT introduces a new Suite ID, EdDSA/cSHAKE128, and because this
   is of value to HIPv2, it will be allocated out of the 4-bit HIT space
   and result in an update to HIT Suite IDs.  Future HHIT Suite IDs may
   be allocated similarly, or they may come out of the additional space
   made available by going to 8 bits.

   The following HHIT Suite IDs are defined:

                     | HHIT Suite      | Value       |
                     | RESERVED        | 0           |
                     | RSA,DSA/SHA-256 | 1 [RFC7401] |
                     | ECDSA/SHA-384   | 2 [RFC7401] |
                     | ECDSA_LOW/SHA-1 | 3 [RFC7401] |
                     | EdDSA/cSHAKE128 | 5           |

                      Table 2: Initial HHIT Suite IDs

3.2.1.  HDA Custom HIT Suite IDs

   Support for 8-bit HHIT Suite IDs allows for HDA custom HIT Suite IDs
   (see Table 3).

                       | HHIT Suite        | Value |
                       | HDA Private Use 1 | 254   |
                       | HDA Private Use 2 | 255   |

                          Table 3: HDA Custom HIT
                                 Suite IDs

   These custom HIT Suite IDs, for example, may be used for large-scale
   experimentation with post-quantum computing hashes or similar domain-
   specific needs.  Note that currently there is no support for domain-
   specific HI algorithms.

   They should not be used to create a "de facto standardization".
   Section 8.2 states that additional Suite IDs can be made through IETF

3.3.  The Hierarchy ID (HID)

   The HID provides the structure to organize HITs into administrative
   domains.  HIDs are further divided into two fields:

   *  14-bit Registered Assigning Authority (RAA)

   *  14-bit HHIT Domain Authority (HDA)

   The rationale for splitting the HID into two 14-bit domains is
   described in Appendix B.

   The two levels of hierarchy allow for Civil Aviation Authorities
   (CAAs) to have it least one RAA for their National Air Space (NAS).
   Within its RAAs, the CAAs can delegate HDAs as needed.  There may be
   other RAAs allowed to operate within a given NAS; this is a policy
   decision of each CAA.

3.3.1.  The Registered Assigning Authority (RAA)

   An RAA is a business or organization that manages a registry of HDAs.
   For example, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) or Japan Civil
   Aviation Bureau (JCAB) could be RAAs.

   The RAA is a 14-bit field (16,384 RAAs).  Management of this space is
   further described in [DRIP-REG].  An RAA MUST provide a set of
   services to allocate HDAs to organizations.  It SHOULD have a public
   policy on what is necessary to obtain an HDA.  The RAA need not
   maintain any HIP-related services.  At minimum, it MUST maintain a
   DNS zone for the HDA zone delegation for discovering HIP RVS servers
   [RFC8004] for the HID.  Zone delegation is covered in [DRIP-REG].

   As DETs under administrative control may be used in many different
   domains (e.g., commercial, recreation, military), RAAs should be
   allocated in blocks (e.g., 16-19) with consideration of the likely
   size of a particular usage.  Alternatively, different prefixes can be
   used to separate different domains of use of HHITs.

   The RAA DNS zone within the UAS DNS tree may be a PTR for its RAA.
   It may be a zone in a HHIT-specific DNS zone.  Assume that the RAA is
   decimal 100.  The PTR record could be constructed as follows (where
   20010030 is the DET prefix):

   100.20010030.hhit.arpa.   IN PTR      raa.example.com.

   Note that if the zone 20010030.hhit.arpa is ultimately used, a
   registrar will need to manage this for all HHIT applications.  Thus,
   further thought will be needed in the actual DNS zone tree and
   registration process [DRIP-REG].

3.3.2.  The HHIT Domain Authority (HDA)

   An HDA may be an Internet Service Provider (ISP), UAS Service
   Supplier (USS), or any third party that takes on the business to
   provide UAS services management, HIP RVSs or other needed services
   such as those required for HHIT and/or HIP-enabled devices.

   The HDA is a 14-bit field (16,384 HDAs per RAA) assigned by an RAA
   and is further described in [DRIP-REG].  An HDA must maintain public
   and private UAS registration information and should maintain a set of
   RVS servers for UAS clients that may use HIP.  How this is done and
   scales to the potentially millions of customers are outside the scope
   of this document; they are covered in [DRIP-REG].  This service
   should be discoverable through the DNS zone maintained by the HDA's

   An RAA may assign a block of values to an individual organization.
   This is completely up to the individual RAA's published policy for
   delegation.  Such a policy is out of scope for this document.

3.4.  Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm for HHITs

   The Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) [RFC8032] is
   specified here for use as HIs per HIPv2 [RFC7401].

   The intent in this document is to add EdDSA as a HI algorithm for
   DETs, but doing so impacts the HIP parameters used in a HIP exchange.
   Sections 3.4.1 through 3.4.2 describe the required updates to HIP
   parameters.  Other than the HIP DNS RR (Resource Record) [RFC8005],
   these should not be needed in a DRIP implementation that does not use

   See Section 3.2 for use of the HIT Suite in the context of DRIP.

3.4.1.  HOST_ID

   The HOST_ID parameter specifies the public key algorithm, and for
   elliptic curves, a name.  The HOST_ID parameter is defined in
   Section 5.2.9 of [RFC7401].  Table 4 adds a new HI Algorithm.

                 | Algorithm profile | Value | Reference |
                 | EdDSA             | 13    | [RFC8032] |

                         Table 4: New EdDSA Host ID  HIP Parameter support for EdDSA

   The addition of EdDSA as a HI algorithm requires a subfield in the
   HIP HOST_ID parameter (Section 5.2.9 of [RFC7401]) as was done for
   ECDSA when used in a HIP exchange.

   For HIP hosts that implement EdDSA as the algorithm, the following
   EdDSA curves are represented by the fields in Figure 2.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     |         EdDSA Curve           |             NULL              |
     |                         Public Key                            |

                       Figure 2: EdDSA Curves Fields

   EdDSA Curve:  Curve label

   Public Key:  Represented in Octet-string format [RFC8032]

   For hosts that implement EdDSA as a HIP algorithm, the following
   EdDSA curves are defined.  Recommended curves are tagged accordingly:

         | Algorithm | Curve        | Values                    |
         | EdDSA     | RESERVED     | 0                         |
         | EdDSA     | EdDSA25519   | 1 [RFC8032] (RECOMMENDED) |
         | EdDSA     | EdDSA25519ph | 2 [RFC8032]               |
         | EdDSA     | EdDSA448     | 3 [RFC8032] (RECOMMENDED) |
         | EdDSA     | EdDSA448ph   | 4 [RFC8032]               |

                          Table 5: EdDSA Curves  HIP DNS RR support for EdDSA

   The HIP DNS RR is defined in [RFC8005].  It uses the values defined
   for the 'Algorithm Type' of the IPSECKEY RR [RFC4025] for its PK
   Algorithm field.

   The 'Algorithm Type' value and EdDSA HI encoding are assigned per


   The HIT_SUITE_LIST parameter contains a list of the HIT suite IDs
   that the HIP Responder supports.  The HIT_SUITE_LIST allows the HIP
   Initiator to determine which source HIT Suite IDs are supported by
   the Responder.  The HIT_SUITE_LIST parameter is defined in
   Section 5.2.10 of [RFC7401].

   The following HIT Suite ID is defined:

                        | HIT Suite       | Value |
                        | EdDSA/cSHAKE128 | 5     |

                           Table 6: HIT Suite ID

   Table 7 provides more detail on the above HIT Suite combination.

   The output of cSHAKE128 is variable per the needs of a specific
   ORCHID construction.  It is at most 96 bits long and is directly used
   in the ORCHID (without truncation).

     | Index | Hash      | HMAC    | Signature | Description        |
     |       | function  |         | algorithm |                    |
     |       |           |         | family    |                    |
     |     5 | cSHAKE128 | KMAC128 | EdDSA     | EdDSA HI hashed    |
     |       |           |         |           | with cSHAKE128,    |
     |       |           |         |           | output is variable |

                           Table 7: HIT Suites

3.5.  ORCHIDs for HHITs

   This section improves on ORCHIDv2 [RFC7343] with three enhancements:

   *  the inclusion of an optional "Info" field between the Prefix and
      ORCHID Generation Algorithm (OGA) ID.

   *  an increase in flexibility on the length of each component in the
      ORCHID construction, provided the resulting ORCHID is 128 bits.

   *  the use of cSHAKE [NIST.SP.800-185] for the hashing function.

   The cSHAKE XOF hash function based on Keccak [Keccak] is a variable
   output length hash function.  As such, it does not use the truncation
   operation that other hashes need.  The invocation of cSHAKE specifies
   the desired number of bits in the hash output.  Further, cSHAKE has a
   parameter 'S' as a customization bit string.  This parameter will be
   used for including the ORCHID Context Identifier in a standard

   This ORCHID construction includes the fields in the ORCHID in the
   hash to protect them against substitution attacks.  It also provides
   for inclusion of additional information (in particular, the
   hierarchical bits of the HHIT) in the ORCHID generation.  This should
   be viewed as an update to ORCHIDv2 [RFC7343], as it can produce
   ORCHIDv2 output.

   The following subsections define the new general ORCHID construct
   with the specific application for HHITs.  Thus items like the hash
   size are only discussed in terms of how they impact the HHIT's 64-bit
   hash.  Other hash sizes should be discussed for other specific uses
   of this new ORCHID construct.

3.5.1.  Adding Additional Information to the ORCHID

   ORCHIDv2 [RFC7343] is defined as consisting of three components:

   ORCHID     :=  Prefix | OGA ID | Encode_96( Hash )


      A constant 28-bit-long bitstring value (IPv6 prefix)

      A 4-bit-long identifier for the Hash_function in use within the
      specific usage context.  When used for HIT generation, this is the
      HIT Suite ID.

   Encode_96( )
      An extraction function in which output is obtained by extracting
      the middle 96-bit-long bitstring from the argument bitstring.

   The new ORCHID function is as follows:

   ORCHID     :=  Prefix (p) | Info (n) | OGA ID (o) | Hash (m)


   Prefix (p)
      An IPv6 prefix of length p (max 28 bits long).

   Info (n)
      n bits of information that define a use of the ORCHID.  'n' can be
      zero, which means no additional information.

   OGA ID (o)
      A 4- or 8-bit long identifier for the Hash_function in use within
      the specific usage context.  When used for HIT generation, this is
      the HIT Suite ID [IANA-HIP].  When used for HHIT generation, this
      is the HHIT Suite ID [HHSI].

   Hash (m)
      An extraction function in which output is 'm' bits.

   Sizeof(p + n + o + m) = 128 bits

   The ORCHID length MUST be 128 bits.  For HHITs with a 28-bit IPv6
   prefix, there are 100 bits remaining to be divided in any manner
   between the additional information ("Info"), OGA ID, and the hash
   output.  Consideration must be given to the size of the hash portion,
   taking into account risks like pre-image attacks. 64 bits, as used
   here for HHITs, may be as small as is acceptable.  The size of 'n',
   for the HID, is then determined as what is left; in the case of the
   8-bit OGA used for HHIT, this is 28 bits.

3.5.2.  ORCHID Encoding

   This update adds a different encoding process to that currently used
   in ORCHIDv2.  The input to the hash function explicitly includes all
   the header content plus the Context ID.  The header content consists
   of the Prefix, the Additional Information ("Info"), and the OGA ID
   (HIT Suite ID).  Secondly, the length of the resulting hash is set by
   the sum of the length of the ORCHID header fields.  For example, a
   28-bit prefix with 28 bits for the HID and 8 bits for the OGA ID
   leaves 64 bits for the hash length.

   To achieve the variable length output in a consistent manner, the
   cSHAKE hash is used.  For this purpose, cSHAKE128 is appropriate.
   The cSHAKE function call is:

       cSHAKE128(Input, L, "", Context ID)

       Input      :=  Prefix | Additional Information | OGA ID | HOST_ID
       L          :=  Length in bits of the hash portion of ORCHID

   For full Suite ID support (those that use fixed length hashes like
   SHA256), the following hashing can be used (Note: this does not
   produce output identical to ORCHIDv2 for a /28 prefix and Additional
   Information of zero length):

       Hash[L](Context ID | Input)

       Input      :=  Prefix | Additional Information | OGA ID | HOST_ID
       L          :=  Length in bits of the hash portion of ORCHID

       Hash[L]    :=  An extraction function in which output is obtained
                      by extracting the middle L-bit-long bitstring
                      from the argument bitstring.

   The middle L-bits are those bits from the source number where either
   there is an equal number of bits before and after these bits, or
   there is one more bit prior (when the difference between hash size
   and L is odd).

   HHITs use the Context ID defined in Section 3.  Encoding ORCHIDs for HIPv2

   This section discusses how to provide backwards compatibility for
   ORCHIDv2 [RFC7343] as used in HIPv2 [RFC7401].

   For HIPv2, the Prefix is 2001:20::/28 (Section 6 of [RFC7343]).
   'Info' is zero-length (i.e., not included), and OGA ID is 4-bit.
   Thus, the HI Hash is 96 bits in length.  Further, the Prefix and OGA
   ID are not included in the hash calculation.  Thus, the following
   ORCHID calculations for fixed output length hashes are used:

       Hash[L](Context ID | Input)

       Input      :=  HOST_ID
       L          :=  96
       Context ID :=  0xF0EF F02F BFF4 3D0F E793 0C3C 6E61 74EA

       Hash[L]    :=  An extraction function in which output is obtained
                      by extracting the middle L-bit-long bitstring
                      from the argument bitstring.

   For variable output length hashes use:

       Hash[L](Context ID | Input)

       Input      :=  HOST_ID
       L          :=  96
       Context ID :=  0xF0EF F02F BFF4 3D0F E793 0C3C 6E61 74EA

       Hash[L]    :=  The L-bit output from the hash function

   Then, the ORCHID is constructed as follows:

       Prefix | OGA ID | Hash Output

3.5.3.  ORCHID Decoding

   With this update, the decoding of an ORCHID is determined by the
   Prefix and OGA ID.  ORCHIDv2 [RFC7343] decoding is selected when the
   Prefix is: 2001:20::/28.

   For HHITs, the decoding is determined by the presence of the HHIT
   Prefix as specified in Section 8.2.

3.5.4.  Decoding ORCHIDs for HIPv2

   This section is included to provide backwards compatibility for
   ORCHIDv2 [RFC7343] as used for HIPv2 [RFC7401].

   HITs are identified by a Prefix of 2001:20::/28.  The next 4 bits are
   the OGA ID.  The remaining 96 bits are the HI Hash.

4.  HHITs as DRIP Entity Tags

   HHITs for UAS ID (called, DETs) use the new EdDSA/SHAKE128 HIT suite
   defined in Section 3.4 (GEN-2 in [RFC9153]).  This hierarchy,
   cryptographically bound within the HHIT, provides the information for
   finding the UA's HHIT registry (ID-3 in [RFC9153]).

   The ASTM Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking
   [F3411-22a] adds support for DETs.  This is only available via the
   new UAS ID type 4, "Specific Session ID (SSI)".

   This new SSI uses the first byte of the 20-byte UAS ID for the SSI
   Type, thus restricting the UAS ID of this type to a maximum of 19
   bytes.  The SSI Types initially assigned are:

   SSI 1:  IETF - DRIP Drone Remote ID Protocol (DRIP) entity ID.

   SSI 2:  3GPP - IEEE 1609.2-2016 HashedID8

4.1.  Nontransferablity of DETs

   A HI and its DET SHOULD NOT be transferable between UAs or even
   between replacement electronics (e.g., replacement of damaged
   controller CPU) for a UA.  The private key for the HI SHOULD be held
   in a cryptographically secure component.

4.2.  Encoding HHITs in CTA 2063-A Serial Numbers

   In some cases, it is advantageous to encode HHITs as a CTA 2063-A
   Serial Number [CTA2063A].  For example, the FAA Remote ID Rules
   [FAA_RID] state that a Remote ID Module (i.e., not integrated with UA
   controller) must only use "the serial number of the unmanned
   aircraft"; CTA 2063-A meets this requirement.

   Encoding a HHIT within the CTA 2063-A format is not simple.  The CTA
   2063-A format is defined as follows:

   Serial Number   :=  MFR Code | Length Code | MFR SN


   MFR Code
      4 character code assigned by ICAO (International Civil Aviation
      Organization, a UN Agency).

   Length Code
      1 character Hex encoding of MFR SN length (1-F).

      US-ASCII alphanumeric code (0-9, A-Z except O and I).  Maximum
      length of 15 characters.

   There is no place for the HID; there will need to be a mapping
   service from Manufacturer Code to HID.  The HHIT Suite ID and ORCHID
   hash will take the full 15 characters (as described below) of the MFR
   SN field.

   A character in a CTA 2063-A Serial Number "shall include any
   combination of digits and uppercase letters, except the letters O and
   I, but may include all digits".  This would allow for a Base34
   encoding of the binary HHIT Suite ID and ORCHID hash in 15
   characters.  Although, programmatically, such a conversion is not
   hard, other technologies (e.g., credit card payment systems) that
   have used such odd base encoding have had performance challenges.
   Thus, here a Base32 encoding will be used by also excluding the
   letters Z and S (because they are too similar to the digits 2 and 5,
   respectively).  See Appendix C for the encoding scheme.

   The low-order 72 bits (HHIT Suite ID | ORCHID hash) of the HHIT SHALL
   be left-padded with 3 bits of zeros.  This 75-bit number will be
   encoded into the 15-character MFR SN field using the digit/letters as
   described above.  The manufacturer MUST use a Length Code of F (15).

   Note: The manufacturer MAY use the same Manufacturer Code with a
   Length Code of 1 - E (1 - 14) for other types of serial numbers.

   Using the sample DET from Section 5 that is for HDA=20 under RAA=10
   and having the ICAO CTA MFR Code of 8653, the 20-character CTA 2063-A
   Serial Number would be:


   A mapping service (e.g., DNS) MUST provide a trusted (e.g., via
   DNSSEC [RFC4034]) conversion of the 4-character Manufacturer Code to
   high-order 58 bits (Prefix | HID) of the HHIT.  That is, given a
   Manufacturer Code, a returned Prefix|HID value is reliable.
   Definition of this mapping service is out of scope of this document.

   It should be noted that this encoding would only be used in the Basic
   ID Message (Section 2.2 of [RFC9153]).  The DET is used in the
   Authentication Messages (i.e., the messages that provide framing for
   authentication data only).

4.3.  Remote ID DET as one Class of HHITs

   UAS Remote ID DET may be one of a number of uses of HHITs.  However,
   it is out of the scope of the document to elaborate on other uses of
   HHITs.  As such these follow-on uses need to be considered in
   allocating the RAAs (Section 3.3.1) or HHIT prefix assignments
   (Section 8).

4.4.  Hierarchy in ORCHID Generation

   ORCHIDS, as defined in [RFC7343], do not cryptographically bind an
   IPv6 prefix or the OGA ID (the HIT Suite ID) to the hash of the HI.
   At the time ORCHID was being developed, the rationale was attacks
   against these fields are Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks against
   protocols using ORCHIDs and thus it was up to those protocols to
   address the issue.

   HHITs, as defined in Section 3.5, cryptographically bind all content
   in the ORCHID through the hashing function.  A recipient of a DET
   that has the underlying HI can directly trust and act on all content
   in the HHIT.  This provides a strong, self-claim for using the
   hierarchy to find the DET Registry based on the HID (Section 4.5).

4.5.  DRIP Entity Tag (DET) Registry

   DETs are registered to HDAs.  The registration process defined in
   [DRIP-REG] ensures DET global uniqueness (ID-4 in Section 4.2.1 of
   [RFC9153]).  It also allows the mechanism to create UAS public/
   private data that are associated with the DET (REG-1 and REG-2 in
   Section 4.4.1 of [RFC9153]).

4.6.  Remote ID Authentication Using DETs

   The EdDSA25519 HI (Section 3.4) underlying the DET can be used in an
   88-byte self-proof evidence (timestamps, HHIT, and signature of
   these) to provide proof to Observers of Remote ID ownership (GEN-1 in
   Section 4.1.1 of [RFC9153]).  In practice, the Wrapper and Manifest
   authentication formats (Sections 6.3.3 and 6.3.4 of [DRIP-AUTH])
   implicitly provide this self-proof evidence.  A lookup service like
   DNS can provide the HI and registration proof (GEN-3 in [RFC9153]).

   Similarly, for Observers without Internet access, a 200-byte offline
   self-endorsement (Section 3.1.2 of [DRIP-AUTH]) could provide the
   same Remote ID ownership proof.  This endorsement would contain the
   HDA's signing of the UA's HHIT, itself signed by the UA's HI.  Only a
   small cache (also Section 3.1.2 of [DRIP-AUTH]) that contains the
   HDA's HI/HHIT and HDA meta-data is needed by the Observer.  However,
   such an object would just fit in the ASTM Authentication Message
   (Section 2.2 of [RFC9153]) with no room for growth.  In practice,
   [DRIP-AUTH] provides this offline self-endorsement in two
   authentication messages: the HDA's endorsement of the UA's HHIT
   registration in a Link authentication message whose hash is sent in a
   Manifest authentication message.

   Hashes of any previously sent ASTM messages can be placed in a
   Manifest authentication message (GEN-2 in [RFC9153]).  When a
   Location/Vector Message (i.e., a message that provides UA location,
   altitude, heading, speed, and status) hash along with the hash of the
   HDA's UA HHIT endorsement are sent in a Manifest authentication
   message and the Observer can visually see a UA at the claimed
   location, the Observer has very strong proof of the UA's Remote ID.

   This behavior and how to mix these authentication messages into the
   flow of UA operation messages are detailed in [DRIP-AUTH].

5.  DRIP Entity Tags (DETs) in DNS

   There are two approaches for storing and retrieving DETs using DNS.
   The following are examples of how this may be done.  This serves as
   guidance to the actual deployment of DETs in DNS.  However, this
   document does not provide a recommendation about which approach to
   use.  Further DNS-related considerations are covered in [DRIP-REG].

   *  As FQDNs, for example, "20010030.hhit.arpa.".

   *  Reverse DNS lookups as IPv6 addresses per [RFC8005].

   A DET can be used to construct an FQDN that points to the USS that
   has the public/private information for the UA (REG-1 and REG-2 in
   Section 4.4.1 of [RFC9153]).  For example, the USS for the HHIT could
   be found via the following: assume the RAA is decimal 100 and the HDA
   is decimal 50.  The PTR record is constructed as follows:

       100.50.20010030.hhit.arpa.   IN PTR      foo.uss.example.org.

   The HDA SHOULD provide DNS service for its zone and provide the HHIT
   detail response.

   The DET reverse lookup can be a standard IPv6 reverse look up, or it
   can leverage off the HHIT structure.  Using the allocated prefix for
   HHITs 2001:30::/28 (see Section 3.1), the RAA is decimal 10 and the
   HDA is decimal 20, the DET is:


   See Appendix B.1 for how the upper 64 bits, above, are constructed.
   A DET reverse lookup could be:




   A 'standard' ip6.arpa RR has the advantage of only one Registry
   service supported.

       e.9.6.a.0.d.a.    IN   PTR

   This DNS entry for the DET can also provide a revocation service.
   For example, instead of returning the HI RR it may return some record
   showing that the HI (and thus DET) has been revoked.  Guidance on
   revocation service will be provided in [DRIP-REG].

6.  Other UAS Traffic Management (UTM) Uses of HHITs Beyond DET

   HHITs will be used within the UTM architecture beyond DET (and USS in
   UA ID registration and authentication), for example, as a Ground
   Control Station (GCS) HHIT ID.  Some GCS will use its HHIT for
   securing its Network Remote ID (to USS HHIT) and Command and Control
   (C2, Section 2.2.2 of [RFC9153]) transports.

   Observers may have their own HHITs to facilitate UAS information
   retrieval (e.g., for authorization to private UAS data).  They could
   also use their HHIT for establishing a HIP connection with the UA
   Pilot for direct communications per authorization.  Details about
   such issues are out of the scope of this document.

7.  Summary of Addressed DRIP Requirements

   This document provides the details to solutions for GEN 1 - 3, ID 1 -
   5, and REG 1 - 2 requirements that are described in [RFC9153].

8.  IANA Considerations

8.1.  New Well-Known IPv6 Prefix for DETs

   Since the DET format is not compatible with [RFC7343], IANA has
   allocated the following prefix per this template for the "IANA IPv6
   Special-Purpose Address Registry" [IPv6-SPECIAL].

   Address Block:

      Drone Remote ID Protocol Entity Tags (DETs) Prefix

      This document

   Allocation Date:

   Termination Date:




   Globally Reachable:


8.2.  New IANA DRIP Registry

   IANA has created the "Drone Remote ID Protocol" registry.  The
   following two subregistries have been created within the "Drone
   Remote ID Protocol" group.

8.2.1.  HHIT Prefixes

   Initially, for DET use, one 28-bit prefix has been assigned out of
   the IANA IPv6 Special Purpose Address Block, namely 2001::/23, as per
   [RFC6890].  Future additions to this subregistry are to be made
   through Expert Review (Section 4.5 of [RFC8126]).  Entries with
   network-specific prefixes may be present in the registry.

              | HHIT Use | Bits | Value        | Reference |
              | DET      | 28   | 2001:30::/28 | RFC 9374  |

                   Table 8: Registered DET IPv6 Prefix

   Criteria that should be applied by the designated experts includes
   determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing
   functionality and whether the registration description is clear and
   fits the purpose of this registry.

   Registration requests MUST be sent to drip-reg-review@ietf.org and be
   evaluated within a three-week review period on the advice of one or
   more designated experts.  Within that review period, the designated
   experts will either approve or deny the registration request, and
   communicate their decision to the review list and IANA.  Denials
   should include an explanation and, if applicable, suggestions to
   successfully register the prefix.

   Registration requests that are undetermined for a period longer than
   28 days can be brought to the IESG's attention for resolution.

8.2.2.  HHIT Suite IDs

   This 8-bit value subregistry is a superset of the 4/8-bit "HIT Suite
   ID" subregistry of the "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Parameters"
   registry [IANA-HIP].  Future additions to this subregistry are to be
   made through IETF Review (Section 4.8 of [RFC8126]).  The following
   HHIT Suite IDs are defined.

                 | HHIT Suite        | Value | Reference |
                 | RESERVED          | 0     | RFC 9374  |
                 | RSA,DSA/SHA-256   | 1     | [RFC7401] |
                 | ECDSA/SHA-384     | 2     | [RFC7401] |
                 | ECDSA_LOW/SHA-1   | 3     | [RFC7401] |
                 | EdDSA/cSHAKE128   | 5     | RFC 9374  |
                 | HDA Private Use 1 | 254   | RFC 9374  |
                 | HDA Private Use 2 | 255   | RFC 9374  |

                     Table 9: Registered HHIT Suite IDs

   The HHIT Suite ID values 1 - 31 are reserved for IDs that MUST be
   replicated as HIT Suite IDs (Section 8.4) as is 5 here.  Higher
   values (32 - 255) are for those Suite IDs that need not or cannot be
   accommodated as a HIT Suite ID.

8.3.  IANA CGA Registry Update

   This document has been added as a reference for the "CGA Extension
   Type Tags" registry [IANA-CGA].  IANA has the following Context ID in
   this registry:

   Context ID:
      The Context ID (Section 3) shares the namespace introduced for CGA
      Type Tags.  The following Context ID is defined per the rules in
      Section 8 of [RFC3972]:

         | CGA Type Tag                              | Reference |
         | 0x00B5 A69C 795D F5D5 F008 7F56 843F 2C40 | RFC 9374  |

                     Table 10: CGA Extension Type Tags

8.4.  IANA HIP Registry Updates

   IANA has updated the "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Parameters"
   registry [IANA-HIP] as described below.

   Host ID:
      This document defines the new EdDSA Host ID with value 13
      (Section 3.4.1) in the "HI Algorithm" subregistry of the "Host
      Identity Protocol (HIP) Parameters" registry.

                 | Algorithm Profile | Value | Reference |
                 | EdDSA             | 13    | [RFC8032] |

                     Table 11: Registered HI Algorithm

   EdDSA Curve Label:
      This document specifies a new algorithm-specific subregistry named
      "EdDSA Curve Label".  The values for this subregistry are defined
      in Section  Future additions to this subregistry are to
      be made through IETF Review (Section 4.8 of [RFC8126]).

            | Algorithm | Curve        | Value   | Reference  |
            | EdDSA     | RESERVED     | 0       | RFC 9374   |
            | EdDSA     | EdDSA25519   | 1       | [RFC8032]  |
            | EdDSA     | EdDSA25519ph | 2       | [RFC8032]  |
            | EdDSA     | EdDSA448     | 3       | [RFC8032]  |
            | EdDSA     | EdDSA448ph   | 4       | [RFC8032]  |
            |           |              | 5-65535 | Unassigned |

                  Table 12: Registered EdDSA Curve Labels

   HIT Suite ID:
      This document defines the new HIT Suite of EdDSA/cSHAKE with value
      5 (Section 3.4.2) in the "HIT Suite ID" subregistry of the "Host
      Identity Protocol (HIP) Parameters" registry.

                  | Suite ID        | Value | Reference |
                  | EdDSA/cSHAKE128 | 5     | RFC 9374  |

                     Table 13: Registered HIT Suite of

      The HIT Suite ID 4-bit values 1 - 15 and 8-bit values 0x00 - 0x0F
      MUST be replicated as HHIT Suite IDs (Section 8.2) as is 5 here.

9.  Security Considerations

   The 64-bit hash in HHITs presents a real risk of second pre-image
   cryptographic hash attack (see Section 9.5).  There are no known (to
   the authors) studies of hash size impact on cryptographic hash

   However, with today's computing power, producing 2^64 EdDSA keypairs
   and then generating the corresponding HHIT is economically feasible.
   Consider that a *single* bitcoin mining ASIC can do on the order of
   2^46 sha256 hashes per second or about 2^62 hashes in a single day.
   The point being, 2^64 is not prohibitive, especially as this can be
   done in parallel.

   Note that the 2^64 attempts is for stealing a specific HHIT.
   Consider a scenario of a street photography company with 1,024 UAs
   (each with its own HHIT); an attacker may well be satisfied stealing
   any one of them.  Then, rather than needing to satisfy a 64-bit
   condition on the cSHAKE128 output, an attacker only needs to satisfy
   what is equivalent to a 54-bit condition (since there are 2^10 more
   opportunities for success).

   Thus, although the probability of a collision or pre-image attack is
   low in a collection of 1,024 HHITs out of a total population of 2^64
   (per Section 9.5), it is computationally and economically feasible.
   Therefore, the HHIT registration is a MUST and HHIT/HI registration
   validation SHOULD be performed by Observers either through registry
   lookups or via broadcasted registration proofs (Section 3.1.2 of

   The DET Registry services effectively block attempts to "take over"
   or "hijack" a DET.  It does not stop a rogue attempting to
   impersonate a known DET.  This attack can be mitigated by the
   receiver of messages containing DETs using DNS to find the HI for the
   DET.  As such, use of DNSSEC by the DET registries is recommended to
   provide trust in HI retrieval.

   Another mitigation of HHIT hijacking is when the HI owner (UA)
   supplies an object containing the HHIT that is signed by the HI
   private key of the HDA as detailed in [DRIP-AUTH].

   The two risks with HHITs are the use of an invalid HID and forced HIT
   collisions.  The use of a DNS zone (e.g., "det.arpa.") is strong
   protection against invalid HIDs.  Querying an HDA's RVS for a HIT
   under the HDA protects against talking to unregistered clients.  The
   Registry service [DRIP-REG], through its HHIT uniqueness enforcement,
   provides against forced or accidental HHIT hash collisions.

   Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGAs) provide an assurance of
   uniqueness.  This is two-fold.  The address (in this case the UAS ID)
   is a hash of a public key and a Registry hierarchy naming.  Collision
   resistance (and more importantly, the implied second-preimage
   resistance) makes attacks statistically challenging.  A registration
   process [DRIP-REG] within the HDA provides a level of assured
   uniqueness unattainable without mirroring this approach.

   The second aspect of assured uniqueness is the digital signing
   (evidence) process of the DET by the HI private key and the further
   signing (evidence) of the HI public key by the Registry's key.  This
   completes the ownership process.  The observer at this point does not
   know what owns the DET but is assured, other than the risk of theft
   of the HI private key, that this UAS ID is owned by something and it
   is properly registered.

9.1.  Post-Quantum Computing Is Out of Scope

   As stated in Section 8.1 of [DRIP-ARCH], there has been no effort to
   address post-quantum computing cryptography.  UAs and Broadcast
   Remote ID communications are so constrained that current post-quantum
   computing cryptography is not applicable.  In addition, because a UA
   may use a unique DET for each operation, the attack window could be
   limited to the duration of the operation.

   HHITs contain the ID for the cryptographic suite used in its
   creation, a future algorithm that is safe for post-quantum computing
   that fits the Remote ID constraints may readily be added.

9.2.  DET Trust in ASTM Messaging

   The DET in the ASTM Basic ID Message (Msg Type 0x0, the actual Remote
   ID message) does not provide any assertion of trust.  Truncating 4
   bytes from a HI signing of the HHIT (the UA ID field is 20 bytes and
   a HHIT is 16) within this Basic ID Message is the best that can be
   done.  This is not trustable, as it is too open to a hash attack.
   Minimally, it takes 88 bytes (Section 4.6) to prove ownership of a
   DET with a full EdDSA signature.  Thus, no attempt has been made to
   add DET trust directly within the very small Basic ID Message.

   The ASTM Authentication Message (Msg Type 0x2) as shown in
   Section 4.6 can provide actual ownership proofs in a practical
   manner.  The endorsements and evidence include timestamps to defend
   against replay attacks, but they do not prove which UA sent the
   message.  The messages could have been sent by a dog running down the
   street with a Broadcast Remote ID module strapped to its back.

   Proof of UA transmission comes, for example, when the Authentication
   Message includes proof of the ASTM Location/Vector Message (Msg Type
   0x1) and a) the observer can see the UA or b) the location
   information is validated by ground multilateration.  Only then does
   an observer gain full trust in the DET of the UA.

   DETs obtained via the Network RID path provide a different approach
   to trust.  Here the UAS SHOULD be securely communicating to the USS,
   thus asserting DET trust.

9.3.  DET Revocation

   The DNS entry for the DET can also provide a revocation service.  For
   example, instead of returning the HI RR, it may return some record
   showing that the HI (and thus DET) has been revoked.  Guidance on
   revocation service will be provided in [DRIP-REG].

9.4.  Privacy Considerations

   There is no expectation of privacy for DETs; it is not part of the
   normative privacy requirements listed in Section 4.3.1 of [RFC9153].
   DETs are broadcast in the clear over the open air via Bluetooth and
   Wi-Fi.  They will be collected and collated with other public
   information about the UAS.  This will include DET registration
   information and location and times of operations for a DET.  A DET
   can be for the life of a UA if there is no concern about DET/UA
   activity harvesting.

   Further, the Media Access Control (MAC) address of the wireless
   interface used for Remote ID broadcasts are a target for UA operation
   aggregation that may not be mitigated through MAC address
   randomization.  For Bluetooth 4 Remote ID messaging, the MAC address
   is used by observers to link the Basic ID Message that contains the
   RID with other Remote ID messages, thus it must be constant for a UA
   operation.  This use of MAC addresses to link messages may not be
   needed with the Bluetooth 5 or Wi-Fi PHYs.  These PHYs provide for a
   larger message payload and can use the Message Pack (Msg Type 0xF)
   and the Authentication Message to transmit the RID with other Remote
   ID messages.  However, sending the RID in a Message Pack or
   Authentication Message is not mandatory, so using the MAC address for
   UA message linking must be allowed.  That is, the MAC address should
   be stable for at least a UA operation.

   Finally, it is not adequate to simply change the DET and MAC for a UA
   per operation to defeat tracking the history of the UA's activity.

   Any changes to the UA MAC may have impacts to C2 setup and use.  A
   constant GCS MAC may well defeat any privacy gains in UA MAC and RID
   changes.  UA/GCS binding is complicated if the UA MAC address can
   change; historically, UAS design assumed these to be "forever" and
   made setup a one-time process.  Additionally, if IP is used for C2, a
   changing MAC may mean a changing IP address to further impact the UAS
   bindings.  Finally, an encryption wrapper's identifier (such as ESP
   [RFC4303] SPI) would need to change per operation to ensure operation
   tracking separation.

   Creating and maintaining UAS operational privacy is a multifaceted
   problem.  Many communication pieces need to be considered to truly
   create a separation between UA operations.  Changing the DET is only
   the start of the changes that need to be implemented.

   These privacy realities may present challenges for the European Union
   (EU) U-space (Appendix A) program.

9.5.  Collision Risks with DETs

   The 64-bit hash size here for DETs does have an increased risk of
   collisions over the 96-bit hash size used for the ORCHID [RFC7343]
   construct.  There is a 0.01% probability of a collision in a
   population of 66 million.  The probability goes up to 1% for a
   population of 663 million.  See Appendix D for the collision
   probability formula.

   However, this risk of collision is within a single "Additional
   Information" value, i.e., an RAA/HDA domain.  The UAS/USS
   registration process should include registering the DET and MUST
   reject a collision, forcing the UAS to generate a new HI and thus
   HHIT and reapplying to the DET registration process (Section 6 of

   Thus an adversary trying to generate a collision and 'steal' the DET
   would run afoul of this registration process and associated
   validation process mentioned in Section 1.1.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

              Dworkin, M. J. and National Institute of Standards and
              Technology, "SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and
              Extendable-Output Functions", DOI 10.6028/nist.fips.202,
              July 2015, <http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/nist.fips.202>.

              Kelsey, J., Change, S., Perlner, R., and National
              Institute of Standards and Technology, "SHA-3 derived
              functions: cSHAKE, KMAC, TupleHash and ParallelHash",
              DOI 10.6028/nist.sp.800-185, December 2016,

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC6890]  Cotton, M., Vegoda, L., Bonica, R., Ed., and B. Haberman,
              "Special-Purpose IP Address Registries", BCP 153,
              RFC 6890, DOI 10.17487/RFC6890, April 2013,

   [RFC7343]  Laganier, J. and F. Dupont, "An IPv6 Prefix for Overlay
              Routable Cryptographic Hash Identifiers Version 2
              (ORCHIDv2)", RFC 7343, DOI 10.17487/RFC7343, September
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7343>.

   [RFC7401]  Moskowitz, R., Ed., Heer, T., Jokela, P., and T.
              Henderson, "Host Identity Protocol Version 2 (HIPv2)",
              RFC 7401, DOI 10.17487/RFC7401, April 2015,

   [RFC8005]  Laganier, J., "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Domain Name
              System (DNS) Extension", RFC 8005, DOI 10.17487/RFC8005,
              October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8005>.

   [RFC8032]  Josefsson, S. and I. Liusvaara, "Edwards-Curve Digital
              Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", RFC 8032,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8032, January 2017,

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC9373]  Moskowitz, R., Kivinen, T., and M. Richardson, "EdDSA
              Value for IPSECKEY", RFC 9373, DOI 10.17487/RFC9373, March
              2023, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9373>.

10.2.  Informative References

              Gajcowski, N., "Please review draft-ietf-drip-rid",
              message to the CFRG mailing list, 23 September 2021,

   [CORUS]    CORUS, "SESAR Concept of Operations for U-space", 9
              September 2019, <https://www.sesarju.eu/node/3411>.

   [CTA2063A] ANSI/CTA, "Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Serial Numbers",
              September 2019, <https://shop.cta.tech/products/small-

              Card, S. W., Wiethuechter, A., Moskowitz, R., Zhao, S.,
              and A. Gurtov, "Drone Remote Identification Protocol
              (DRIP) Architecture", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-drip-arch-31, 6 March 2023,

              Wiethuechter, A., Card, S. W., and R. Moskowitz, "DRIP
              Entity Tag Authentication Formats & Protocols for
              Broadcast Remote ID", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-drip-auth-29, 15 February 2023,

   [DRIP-REG] Wiethuechter, A. and J. Reid, "DRIP Entity Tag (DET)
              Identity Management Architecture", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-drip-registries-07, 5 December
              2022, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-

              ASTM International, "Standard Specification for Remote ID
              and Tracking - F3411-22a", July 2022,

   [FAA_RID]  United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
              "Remote Identification of Unmanned Aircraft", 15 January
              2021, <https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2021-01-15/

   [HHSI]     IANA, "Hierarchical HIT (HHIT) Suite IDs",

   [IANA-CGA] IANA, "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA) Message
              Type Name Space",

   [IANA-HIP] IANA, "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Parameters",

              IANA, "IANA IPv6 Special-Purpose Address Registry",

   [Keccak]   Bertoni, G., Daemen, J., Peeters, M., Van Assche, G., and
              R. Van Keer, "Keccak Team",

   [RFC3972]  Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
              RFC 3972, DOI 10.17487/RFC3972, March 2005,

   [RFC4025]  Richardson, M., "A Method for Storing IPsec Keying
              Material in DNS", RFC 4025, DOI 10.17487/RFC4025, March
              2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4025>.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, DOI 10.17487/RFC4034, March 2005,

   [RFC4122]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
              Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4122, July 2005,

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005,

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,

   [RFC8004]  Laganier, J. and L. Eggert, "Host Identity Protocol (HIP)
              Rendezvous Extension", RFC 8004, DOI 10.17487/RFC8004,
              October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8004>.

   [RFC8200]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,

   [RFC9063]  Moskowitz, R., Ed. and M. Komu, "Host Identity Protocol
              Architecture", RFC 9063, DOI 10.17487/RFC9063, July 2021,

   [RFC9153]  Card, S., Ed., Wiethuechter, A., Moskowitz, R., and A.
              Gurtov, "Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP)
              Requirements and Terminology", RFC 9153,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9153, February 2022,

   [RFC9224]  Blanchet, M., "Finding the Authoritative Registration Data
              Access Protocol (RDAP) Service", STD 95, RFC 9224,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9224, March 2022,

Appendix A.  EU U-Space RID Privacy Considerations

   The EU is defining a future of airspace management known as U-space
   within the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) undertaking.  The
   Concept of Operation for EuRopean UTM Systems (CORUS) project
   proposed low-level Concept of Operations [CORUS] for UAS in the EU.
   It introduces strong requirements for UAS privacy based on European
   General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) regulations.  It suggests
   that UAs are identified with agnostic IDs, with no information about
   UA type, the operators, or flight trajectory.  Only authorized
   persons should be able to query the details of the flight with a
   record of access.

   Due to the high privacy requirements, a casual observer can only
   query U-space if it is aware of a UA seen in a certain area.  A
   general observer can use a public U-space portal to query UA details
   based on the UA transmitted "Remote identification" signal.  Direct
   remote identification (DRID) is based on a signal transmitted by the
   UA directly.  Network remote identification (NRID) is only possible
   for UAs being tracked by U-Space and is based on the matching the
   current UA position to one of the tracks.

   This is potentially a contrary expectation as that presented in
   Section 9.4.  U-space will have to deal with this reality within the
   GDPR regulations.  Still, DETs as defined here present a large step
   in the right direction for agnostic IDs.

   The project lists "E-Identification" and "E-Registrations" services
   as to be developed.  These services can use DETs and follow the
   privacy considerations outlined in this document for DETs.

   If an "agnostic ID" above refers to a completely random identifier,
   it creates a problem with identity resolution and detection of
   misuse.  On the other hand, a classical HIT has a flat structure
   which makes its resolution difficult.  The DET (HHIT) provides a
   balanced solution by associating a registry with the UA identifier.
   This is not likely to cause a major conflict with U-space privacy
   requirements, as the registries are typically few at a country level
   (e.g., civil personal, military, law enforcement, or commercial).

Appendix B.  The 14/14 HID split

   The following explains the logic for dividing the 28 bits of the HID
   into two 14-bit components.

   At this writing, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
   has 193 member "States", and each may want to control RID assignment
   within its National Air Space (NAS).  Some members may want separate
   RAAs to use for Civil, general Government, and Military use.  They
   may also want allowances for competing Civil RAA operations.  It is
   reasonable to plan for eight RAAs per ICAO member (plus regional
   aviation organizations like in the EU).  Thus, as a start, a space of
   4,096 RAAs is advised.

   There will be requests by commercial entities for their own RAA
   allotments.  Examples could include international organizations that
   will be using UAS and international delivery service associations.
   These may be smaller than the RAA space needed by ICAO member States
   and could be met with a 2,048 space allotment; however, as will be
   seen, these might as well be 4,096 as well.

   This may well cover currently understood RAA entities.  In the
   future, there will be new applications, branching off into new areas,
   so yet another space allocation should be set aside.  If this is
   equal to all that has been reserved, we should allow for 16,384
   (2^14) RAAs.

   The HDA allocation follows a different logic from that of RAAs.  Per
   Appendix D, an HDA should be able to easily assign 63M RIDs and even
   manage 663M with a "first come, first assigned" registration process.
   For most HDAs, this is more than enough, and a single HDA assignment
   within their RAA will suffice.  Most RAAs will only delegate to a
   couple of HDAs for their operational needs.  But there are major
   exceptions that point to some RAAs needing large numbers of HDA

   Delivery service operators like Amazon (est. 30K delivery vans) and
   UPS (est. 500K delivery vans) may choose, for anti-tracking reasons,
   to use unique RIDs per day or even per operation.  30K delivery UAs
   could need between 11M and 44M RIDs.  Anti-tracking would be hard to
   provide if the HID were the same for a delivery service fleet, so
   such a company may turn to an HDA that provides this service to
   multiple companies so that who's UA is who's is not evident in the
   HID.  A USS providing this service could well use multiple HDA
   assignments per year, depending on strategy.

   Perhaps a single RAA providing HDAs for delivery service (or a
   similar purpose) UAS could 'get by' with a 2048 HDA space (11 bits).
   So the HDA space could well be served with only 12 bits allocated out
   of the 28-bit HID space.  However, as this is speculation and
   deployment experience will take years, a 14-bit HDA space has been

   There may also be 'small' ICAO member States that opt for a single
   RAA and allocate their HDAs for all UAs that are permitted in their
   NAS.  The HDA space is large enough that a portion may be used for
   government needs as stated above and small commercial needs.
   Alternatively, the State may use a separate, consecutive RAA for
   commercial users.  Thus it would be 'easy' to recognize State-
   approved UA by HID high-order bits.

B.1.  DET Encoding Example

   The upper 64 bits of DET appear to be oddly constructed from nibbled
   fields, when typically seen in 8-bit representations.  The following
   works out the construction of the example in Section 5.

   In that example, the prefix is 2001:30::/28, the RAA is decimal 10,
   and the HDA is decimal 20.  Below is the RAA and HDA in 14-bit

   RAA 10 = 00000000001010
   HDA 20 = 00000000010100

   The leftmost 4 bits of the RAA, all zeros, combine with the prefix to
   form 2001:0030:, which leaves the remaining RAA and HDA to combine


   Which when combined with the OGA of x05 is 0280:1405, thus the whole
   upper 64 bits are 2001:0030:0280:1405.

Appendix C.  Base32 Alphabet

   The alphabet used in CTA 2063-A Serial Number does not map to any
   published Base32 encoding scheme.  Therefore, the following Base32
   Alphabet is used.

   Each 5-bit group is used as an index into an array of 32 printable
   characters.  The character referenced by the index is placed in the
   output string.  These characters, identified below, are selected from
   US-ASCII digits and uppercase letters.

    |Value|Encoding|Value| Encoding |Value| Encoding |Value| Encoding |
    |    0|0       |    8| 8        |   16| G        |   24| Q        |
    |    1|1       |    9| 9        |   17| H        |   25| R        |
    |    2|2       |   10| A        |   18| J        |   26| T        |
    |    3|3       |   11| B        |   19| K        |   27| U        |
    |    4|4       |   12| C        |   20| L        |   28| V        |
    |    5|5       |   13| D        |   21| M        |   29| W        |
    |    6|6       |   14| E        |   22| N        |   30| X        |
    |    7|7       |   15| F        |   23| P        |   31| Y        |

                       Table 14: The Base 32 Alphabet

Appendix D.  Calculating Collision Probabilities

   The accepted formula for calculating the probability of a collision

   p = 1 - e^({-k^2/(2n)})

   P:  Collision Probability

   n:  Total possible population

   k:  Actual population

   The following table provides the approximate population size for a
   collision for a given total population.

     | Total Population | Deployed Population With Collision Risk of |
     |                  +=====================================+======+
     |                  | .01%                                | 1%   |
     | 2^96             | 4T                                  | 42T  |
     | 2^72             | 1B                                  | 10B  |
     | 2^68             | 250M                                | 2.5B |
     | 2^64             | 66M                                 | 663M |
     | 2^60             | 16M                                 | 160M |

         Table 15: Approximate Population Size With Collision Risk


   Dr. Gurtov is an adviser on Cybersecurity to the Swedish Civil
   Aviation Administration.

   Quynh Dang of NIST gave considerable guidance on using Keccak and the
   supporting NIST documents.  Joan Deamen of the Keccak team was
   especially helpful in many aspects of using Keccak.  Nicholas
   Gajcowski [CFRG-COMMENT] provided a concise hash pre-image security
   assessment via the CFRG list.

   Many thanks to Michael Richardson and Brian Haberman for the iotdir
   review, Magnus Nystrom for the secdir review, Elwyn Davies for the
   genart review, and the DRIP co-chair and document shepherd, Mohamed
   Boucadair for his extensive comments and help on document clarity.
   And finally, many thanks to the Area Directors: Roman Danyliw, Erik
   Kline, Murray Kucherawy, Warren Kumari, John Scudder, Paul Wouters,
   and Sarker Zaheduzzaman, for the IESG review.

Authors' Addresses

   Robert Moskowitz
   HTT Consulting
   Oak Park, MI 48237
   United States of America
   Email: rgm@labs.htt-consult.com

   Stuart W. Card
   AX Enterprize, LLC
   4947 Commercial Drive
   Yorkville, NY 13495
   United States of America
   Email: stu.card@axenterprize.com

   Adam Wiethuechter
   AX Enterprize, LLC
   4947 Commercial Drive
   Yorkville, NY 13495
   United States of America
   Email: adam.wiethuechter@axenterprize.com

   Andrei Gurtov
   Linköping University
   SE-58183 Linköping
   Email: gurtov@acm.org
  1. RFC 9374