1. RFC 9278
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                          M. Jones
Request for Comments: 9278                                     K. Yasuda
Category: Standards Track                                      Microsoft
ISSN: 2070-1721                                              August 2022

                           JWK Thumbprint URI


   This specification registers a kind of URI that represents a JSON Web
   Key (JWK) Thumbprint value.  JWK Thumbprints are defined in RFC 7638.
   This enables JWK Thumbprints to be used, for instance, as key
   identifiers in contexts requiring URIs.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Requirements Notation and Conventions
   3.  JWK Thumbprint URI
   4.  Hash Algorithms Identifier
   5.  Mandatory to Implement Hash Algorithm
   6.  Example JWK Thumbprint URI
   7.  Security Considerations
     7.1.  Multiple Public Keys per Private Key
   8.  IANA Considerations
     8.1.  OAuth URI Registration
       8.1.1.  Registry Contents
   9.  References
     9.1.  Normative References
     9.2.  Informative References
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   A JSON Web Key (JWK) Thumbprint [RFC7638] is a URL-safe
   representation of a hash value over a JWK [RFC7517].  This
   specification defines a URI prefix indicating that the portion of the
   URI following the prefix is a JWK Thumbprint.  This enables JWK
   Thumbprints to be communicated in contexts requiring URIs, including
   in specific JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519] claims.

   JWK Thumbprint URIs are being used in the [SIOPv2] specification as
   one kind of subject identifier in a context requiring that the
   identifier be a URI.  In this case, the subject identifier is derived
   from a public key represented as a JWK.  Expressing the identifier as
   a JWK Thumbprint URI enables this kind of identifier to be
   differentiated from other kinds of identifiers that are also URIs,
   such as Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) [DID-Core].

2.  Requirements Notation and Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  JWK Thumbprint URI

   The following URI prefix is defined to indicate that the portion of
   the URI following the prefix is a JWK Thumbprint:


   To make the hash algorithm being used explicit in a URI, the prefix
   is followed by a hash algorithm identifier and a JWK Thumbprint
   value, each separated by a colon character to form a URI representing
   a JWK Thumbprint.

4.  Hash Algorithms Identifier

   Hash algorithm identifiers used in JWK Thumbprint URIs MUST be values
   from the "Hash Name String" column in the IANA "Named Information
   Hash Algorithm Registry" [IANA.Hash.Algorithms].  JWK Thumbprint URIs
   with hash algorithm identifiers not found in this registry are not
   considered valid and applications will need to detect and handle this
   error, should it occur.

5.  Mandatory to Implement Hash Algorithm

   To promote interoperability among implementations, the SHA-256 hash
   algorithm is mandatory to implement.

6.  Example JWK Thumbprint URI

   Section 3.1 of [RFC7638] contains the following example JWK
   Thumbprint value:


   A complete JWK Thumbprint URI using the above JWK Thumbprint and
   SHA-256 hash algorithm is as follows:


7.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of [RFC7638] also apply when using this

7.1.  Multiple Public Keys per Private Key

   There are cryptographic algorithms for which multiple public keys
   correspond to the same private key.  This is described in the
   security considerations of [RFC7748] as follows:

   |  Designers using these curves should be aware that for each public
   |  key, there are several publicly computable public keys that are
   |  equivalent to it, i.e., they produce the same shared secrets.
   |  Thus using a public key as an identifier and knowledge of a shared
   |  secret as proof of ownership (without including the public keys in
   |  the key derivation) might lead to subtle vulnerabilities.

   This consideration for public keys as identifiers equally applies to
   JWK Thumbprint URIs used as identifiers.  A recommended way to ensure
   that the JWK Thumbprint URI corresponds to the actual public key used
   is to sign a message containing the correct public key with the
   private key.  This signed message could also contain the JWK
   Thumbprint URI (although, by definition, it could also be computed
   directly from the public key).

8.  IANA Considerations

8.1.  OAuth URI Registration

   This specification registers the following value in the IANA "OAuth
   URI" registry [IANA.OAuth.Parameters] established by [RFC6755].

8.1.1.  Registry Contents

   URN:  urn:ietf:params:oauth:jwk-thumbprint

   Common Name:  JWK Thumbprint URI

   Change controller:  IESG

   Specification Document:  RFC 9278

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

              IANA, "OAuth Parameters",

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC7638]  Jones, M. and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Key (JWK)
              Thumbprint", RFC 7638, DOI 10.17487/RFC7638, September
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7638>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [DID-Core] Sporny, M., Guy, A., Sabadello, M., and D. Reed,
              "Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) v1.0", August 2021,

              IANA, "Named Information Hash Algorithm Registry",

   [RFC6755]  Campbell, B. and H. Tschofenig, "An IETF URN Sub-Namespace
              for OAuth", RFC 6755, DOI 10.17487/RFC6755, October 2012,

   [RFC7517]  Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", RFC 7517,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7517, May 2015,

   [RFC7519]  Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
              (JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015,

   [RFC7748]  Langley, A., Hamburg, M., and S. Turner, "Elliptic Curves
              for Security", RFC 7748, DOI 10.17487/RFC7748, January
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7748>.

   [SIOPv2]   Yasuda, K., Jones, M., and T. Lodderstedt, "Self-Issued
              OpenID Provider v2", June 2022, <https://openid.net/specs/


   Use cases for this specification were developed in the OpenID Connect
   Working Group of the OpenID Foundation.  Specifically, it is being
   used as a key identifier in the [SIOPv2] specification.

   The following individuals also contributed to the creation of this
   specification: John Bradley, Scott Bradner, Brian Campbell, Roman
   Danyliw, Vladimir Dzhuvinov, Lars Eggert, Warren Kumari, Adam Lemmon,
   Neil Madden, James Manger, Francesca Palombini, Aaron Parecki,
   Gonzalo Salgueiro, Rifaat Shekh-Yusef, Robert Sparks, David Waite,
   Robert Wilton, and Paul Wouters.

Authors' Addresses

   Michael B. Jones
   Email: mbj@microsoft.com
   URI:   https://self-issued.info/

   Kristina Yasuda
   Email: kryasuda@microsoft.com
   URI:   https://twitter.com/kristinayasuda
  1. RFC 9278