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RFC4085 - Embedding Globally-Routable Internet Addresses Considered Harmful
This document discourages the practice of embedding references to unique, globally-routable IP addresses in Internet hosts, describes some of the resulting problems, and considers selected alternatives. This document is intended to clarify best current practices in this regard. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4264 - BGP Wedgies
It has commonly been assumed that the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a tool for distributing reachability information in a manner that creates forwarding paths in a deterministic manner. In this memo we will describe a class of BGP configurations for which there is more than one potential outcome, and where forwarding states other than the intended state are equally stable. Also, the stable state where BGP converges may be selected by BGP in a non-deterministic manner. These stable, but unintended, BGP states are termed here "BGP Wedgies". This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4384 - BGP Communities for Data Collection
BGP communities (RFC 1997) are used by service providers for many purposes, including tagging of customer, peer, and geographically originated routes. Such tagging is typically used to control the scope of redistribution of routes within a provider's network and to its peers and customers. With the advent of large-scale BGP data collection (and associated research), it has become clear that the information carried in such communities is essential for a deeper understanding of the global routing system. This memo defines standard (outbound) communities and their encodings for export to BGP route collectors. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4451 - BGP MULTI_EXIT_DISC (MED) Considerations
The BGP MULTI_EXIT_DISC (MED) attribute provides a mechanism for BGP speakers to convey to an adjacent AS the optimal entry point into the local AS. While BGP MEDs function correctly in many scenarios, a number of issues may arise when utilizing MEDs in dynamic or complex topologies.
This document discusses implementation and deployment considerations regarding BGP MEDs and provides information with which implementers and network operators should be familiar. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4632 - Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR): The Internet Address Assignment and Aggregation Plan
This memo discusses the strategy for address assignment of the existing 32-bit IPv4 address space with a view toward conserving the address space and limiting the growth rate of global routing state. This document obsoletes the original Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR) spec in RFC 1519, with changes made both to clarify the concepts it introduced and, after more than twelve years, to update the Internet community on the results of deploying the technology described. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4786 - Operation of Anycast Services
As the Internet has grown, and as systems and networked services within enterprises have become more pervasive, many services with high availability requirements have emerged. These requirements have increased the demands on the reliability of the infrastructure on which those services rely.
Various techniques have been employed to increase the availability of services deployed on the Internet. This document presents commentary and recommendations for distribution of services using anycast. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC6198 - Requirements for the Graceful Shutdown of BGP Sessions
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is heavily used in Service Provider networks for both Internet and BGP/MPLS VPN services. For resiliency purposes, redundant routers and BGP sessions can be deployed to reduce the consequences of an Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) or BGP session breakdown on customers' or peers' traffic. However, simply taking down or even bringing up a BGP session for maintenance purposes may still induce connectivity losses during the BGP convergence. This is no longer satisfactory for new applications (e.g., voice over IP, online gaming, VPN). Therefore, a solution is required for the graceful shutdown of a (set of) BGP session(s) in order to limit the amount of traffic loss during a planned shutdown. This document expresses requirements for such a solution. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
RFC6382 - Unique Origin Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) per Node for Globally Anycasted Services
This document makes recommendations regarding the use of unique origin autonomous system numbers (ASNs) per node for globally anycasted critical infrastructure services in order to provide routing system discriminators for a given anycasted prefix. Network management and monitoring techniques, or other operational mechanisms, may employ this new discriminator in whatever manner best accommodates their operating environment. This memo documents an Internet Best Current Practice.
RFC6396 - Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit (MRT) Routing Information Export Format
This document describes the MRT format for routing information export. This format was developed in concert with the Multi-threaded Routing Toolkit (MRT) from whence the format takes it name. The format can be used to export routing protocol messages, state changes, and routing information base contents. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC6397 - Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit (MRT) Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Routing Information Export Format with Geo-Location Extensions
This document updates the Multi-threaded Routing Toolkit (MRT) export format for Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing information by extending it to include optional terrestrial coordinates of a BGP collector and its BGP peers. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC6441 - Time to Remove Filters for Previously Unallocated IPv4 /8s
It has been common for network administrators to filter IP traffic from and BGP prefixes of unallocated IPv4 address space. Now that there are no longer any unallocated IPv4 /8s, this practise is more complicated, fragile, and expensive. Network administrators are advised to remove filters based on the registration status of the address space.
This document explains why any remaining packet and BGP prefix filters for unallocated IPv4 /8s should now be removed on border routers and documents those IPv4 unicast prefixes that should not be routed across the public Internet. This memo documents an Internet Best Current Practice.
RFC6752 - Issues with Private IP Addressing in the Internet
The purpose of this document is to provide a discussion of the potential problems of using private, RFC 1918, or non-globally routable addressing within the core of a Service Provider (SP) network. The discussion focuses on link addresses and, to a small extent, loopback addresses. While many of the issues are well recognised within the ISP community, there appears to be no document that collectively describes the issues. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
RFC6769 - Simple Virtual Aggregation (S-VA)
All BGP routers in the Default-Free Zone (DFZ) are required to carry all routes in the Default-Free Routing Table (DFRT). This document describes a technique, Simple Virtual Aggregation (S-VA), that allows some BGP routers not to install all of those routes into the Forwarding Information Base (FIB).
Some routers in an Autonomous System (AS) announce an aggregate (the VA prefix) in addition to the routes they already announce. This enables other routers not to install the routes covered by the VA prefix into the FIB as long as those routes have the same next-hop as the VA prefix.
The VA prefixes that are announced within an AS are not announced to any other AS. The described functionality is of very low operational complexity, as it proposes a confined BGP speaker solution without any dependency on network-wide configuration or requirement for any form of intra-domain tunneling. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
RFC6774 - Distribution of Diverse BGP Paths
The BGP4 protocol specifies the selection and propagation of a single best path for each prefix. As defined and widely deployed today, BGP has no mechanisms to distribute alternate paths that are not considered best path between its speakers. This behavior results in a number of disadvantages for new applications and services.
The main objective of this document is to observe that by simply adding a new session between a route reflector and its client, the Nth best path can be distributed. This document also compares existing solutions and proposed ideas that enable distribution of more paths than just the best path.
This proposal does not specify any changes to the BGP protocol definition. It does not require a software upgrade of provider edge (PE) routers acting as route reflector clients. This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes.
RFC7682 - Considerations for Internet Routing Registries (IRRs) and Routing Policy Configuration
The purpose of this document is to catalog issues that influenced the efficacy of Internet Routing Registries (IRRs) for inter-domain routing policy specification and application in the global routing system over the past two decades. Additionally, it provides a discussion regarding which of these issues are still problematic in practice, and which are simply artifacts that are no longer applicable but continue to stifle inter-provider policy-based filtering adoption and IRR utility to this day.
RFC7789 - Impact of BGP Filtering on Inter-Domain Routing Policies
This document describes how unexpected traffic flows can emerge across an autonomous system as the result of other autonomous systems filtering or restricting the propagation of more-specific prefixes. We provide a review of the techniques to detect the occurrence of this issue and defend against it.
RFC7854 - BGP Monitoring Protocol (BMP)
This document defines the BGP Monitoring Protocol (BMP), which can be used to monitor BGP sessions. BMP is intended to provide a convenient interface for obtaining route views. Prior to the introduction of BMP, screen scraping was the most commonly used approach to obtaining such views. The design goals are to keep BMP simple, useful, easily implemented, and minimally service affecting. BMP is not suitable for use as a routing protocol.
RFC7908 - Problem Definition and Classification of BGP Route Leaks
A systemic vulnerability of the Border Gateway Protocol routing system, known as "route leaks", has received significant attention in recent years. Frequent incidents that result in significant disruptions to Internet routing are labeled route leaks, but to date a common definition of the term has been lacking. This document provides a working definition of route leaks while keeping in mind the real occurrences that have received significant attention. Further, this document attempts to enumerate (though not exhaustively) different types of route leaks based on observed events on the Internet. The aim is to provide a taxonomy that covers several forms of route leaks that have been observed and are of concern to the Internet user community as well as the network operator community.
RFC7948 - Internet Exchange BGP Route Server Operations
The popularity of Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) brings new challenges to interconnecting networks. While bilateral External BGP (EBGP) sessions between exchange participants were historically the most common means of exchanging reachability information over an IXP, the overhead associated with this interconnection method causes serious operational and administrative scaling problems for IXP participants.
Multilateral interconnection using Internet route servers can dramatically reduce the administrative and operational overhead associated with connecting to IXPs; in some cases, route servers are used by IXP participants as their preferred means of exchanging routing information.
This document describes operational considerations for multilateral interconnections at IXPs.
RFC7999 - BLACKHOLE Community
This document describes the use of a well-known Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) community for destination-based blackholing in IP networks. This well-known advisory transitive BGP community named "BLACKHOLE" allows an origin Autonomous System (AS) to specify that a neighboring network should discard any traffic destined towards the tagged IP prefix.
RFC8050 - Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit (MRT) Routing Information Export Format with BGP Additional Path Extensions
This document extends the Multi-threaded Routing Toolkit (MRT) export format for Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing information by supporting the advertisement of multiple paths in BGP extensions.
RFC8195 - Use of BGP Large Communities
This document presents examples and inspiration for operator application of BGP Large Communities. Based on operational experience with BGP Communities, this document suggests logical categories of BGP Large Communities and demonstrates an orderly manner of organizing community values within them to achieve typical goals in routing policy. Any operator can consider using the concepts presented as the basis for their own BGP Large Communities repertoire.
RFC8212 - Default External BGP (EBGP) Route Propagation Behavior without Policies
This document updates RFC 4271 by defining the default behavior of a BGP speaker when there is no Import or Export Policy associated with an External BGP session.
RFC8326 - Graceful BGP Session Shutdown
This document standardizes a new well-known BGP community, GRACEFUL_SHUTDOWN, to signal the graceful shutdown of paths. This document also describes operational procedures that use this well-known community to reduce the amount of traffic lost when BGP peering sessions are about to be shut down deliberately, e.g., for planned maintenance.
RFC8327 - Mitigating the Negative Impact of Maintenance through BGP Session Culling
This document outlines an approach to mitigate the negative impact on networks resulting from maintenance activities. It includes guidance for both IP networks and Internet Exchange Points (IXPs). The approach is to ensure BGP-4 sessions that will be affected by maintenance are forcefully torn down before the actual maintenance activities commence.
RFC8642 - Policy Behavior for Well-Known BGP Communities
Well-known BGP communities are manipulated differently across various current implementations, resulting in difficulties for operators. Network operators should deploy consistent community handling across their networks while taking the inconsistent behaviors from the various BGP implementations into consideration. This document recommends specific actions to limit future inconsistency: namely, BGP implementors must not create further inconsistencies from this point forward. These behavioral changes, though subtle, actually update RFC 1997.
RFC8671 - Support for Adj-RIB-Out in the BGP Monitoring Protocol (BMP)
The BGP Monitoring Protocol (BMP) only defines access to the Adj-RIB-In Routing Information Bases (RIBs). This document updates BMP (RFC 7854) by adding access to the Adj-RIB-Out RIBs. It also adds a new flag to the peer header to distinguish between Adj-RIB-In and Adj-RIB-Out.
RFC9069 - Support for Local RIB in the BGP Monitoring Protocol (BMP)
The BGP Monitoring Protocol (BMP) defines access to local Routing
Information Bases (RIBs). This document updates BMP (RFC 7854) by
adding access to the Local Routing Information Base (Loc-RIB), as
defined in RFC 4271. The Loc-RIB contains the routes that have been
selected by the local BGP speaker's Decision Process.
RFC9515 - Revision to Registration Procedures for Multiple BMP Registries
This document updates RFC 7854, "BGP Monitoring Protocol (BMP)", by changing the registration procedures for several registries. Specifically, any BMP registry with a range of 32768-65530 designated "Specification Required" has that range redesignated as "First Come First Served".